生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 918-923.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017118

• 植物园定位与发展战略专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

植物园的挑战——对洪德元院士的“三个‘哪些’: 植物园的使命”一文的解读

许再富*()   

  1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园昆明分部, 昆明 650223
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-13 接受日期:2017-09-08 出版日期:2017-09-20 发布日期:2017-10-04
  • 通讯作者: 许再富
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors

Botanical gardens’ challenge—correspondence with Academician De-Yuan Hong’s “Three ‘What’: mission of a botanic garden”

Zaifu Xu*()   

  1. Kunming Division of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2017-04-13 Accepted:2017-09-08 Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-10-04
  • Contact: Xu Zaifu

摘要:

本文赞许和解读了洪德元院士在2016年以“三个‘哪些’: 植物园的使命”为题而提出的植物园引种收集了哪些、培育开发了哪些和挽救了哪些的“三个哪些”的重要见解。笔者认为, 从20世纪80年代以来, 我国植物园已从约110个发展至约200个, 收集、保存了占我国2/3区系成分的约20,000种植物, 远高于世界2,000多个植物园所保存的约1/3的世界种类。在这种情况下, 笔者认为我国植物园在今后的一定时期内, 与其追求保护植物的数量, 不如在资源有限的情况下侧重和优先收集、保存具有重要科研、经济或文化价值种类中已受严重威胁的种类; 另一方面, 要切实加强对它们的有效保护研究, 以解决30多年来植物园新增的和死亡的国家重点保护植物种数相当(各约80%)的状况。对于国家而言, 我们希望政府有关部门要进一步重视那些具有保护功能的植物园的科学布局, 切实解决好在我国植物多样性越丰富、生态环境越独特的地方植物园越少或空白的问题, 而且要在洪院士所提出的“三个哪些”基础上, 进一步重视和支持植物园开展植物有效保护的科学研究。

关键词: 植物迁地保护, 由量向质转变, 有效保护, 植物园科学布局

Abstract

The paper praises and explores De-yuan Hong’s “Three ‘What’: mission of a botanic garden (BG)”, which explores which plants have been collected, what plant resources have been developed for use, and which threatened plants have been saved. The number of BGs has increased from 110 to 200 since 1980s, and they have collected about 20,000 species of native plants, or 2/3 of China’s flora, which is of course much higher than 1/3 of the world’s flora that are cultivated in more than 2,000 BGs worldwide. In this case, the author suggests that Chinese BGs would rater collect and protect a huge number of plant species than pay more attention to threatened plants they have important values for scientific research, economic use, or spiritual and cultural importance with the current limited resources. However, on the other hand, research on efficient conservation must be strengthened by BGs as the number of newly threatened species is equal to the decreasing number of threatened species since the 1980’s. This has led to the protecting rate of national emphasized species still pace up and down on 80% in Chinese BGs. As the national level, the author hopes that the relevant government departments will pay more attentions to improve the imbalance between the richest plant diversity and the most unique environment areas and the gaps that BGs have in our country, and advance support for BGs to carry out research on efficient plant conservation ex situ in BGs.

Key words: plant ex situ conservation, changed from quantity to quality, efficient conservation, BGs science distribution pattern