生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 924-933.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017172

• 植物园定位与发展战略专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

“艺术的外貌、科学的内涵、使命的担当”——植物园500年来的科研与社会功能变迁(一): 艺术的外貌

黄宏文*()   

  1. 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-10 接受日期:2017-09-02 出版日期:2017-09-20 发布日期:2017-10-04
  • 通讯作者: 黄宏文
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY210100)

“Science, art and responsibility”: the scientific and social functional changes of a 500-year history of botanical gardens. I. Artistic appearance

Hongwen Huang*()   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2017-06-10 Accepted:2017-09-02 Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-10-04
  • Contact: Huang Hongwen

摘要:

现代植物园起源于16世纪中叶欧洲文艺复兴后期自然科学与园林艺术的崛起, 兴盛于18世纪西方殖民地对全世界的植物考察与收集鉴定、研究与发掘利用。植物园500余年的发展史充满着人类对自然奥秘、奇特植物的好奇与探索, 是一部人类探索自然、利用自然、改造自然、最终与自然和谐共处的渐进认知的历史; 是一部人类对植物世界从混沌无序到分门别类有序认知的过程史。本文尝试从科学与艺术两个层面, 分析世界植物园500年来的科研行进轨迹与承担社会功能的变迁, 以史为鉴, 思考我国植物园的未来发展及承接的历史担当。本篇先从“艺术的外貌”综述世界植物园500年的发展历程, 限于篇幅, 仅聚焦里程碑式大事件的分析归纳, 以期为我国植物园界同行提供可借鉴的思考。

关键词: 植物园规划, 园林艺术, 景观设计, 殖民地农业, 皇家园林

Abstract

The modern botanical gardens that originated in mid-16th century with the rise of natural sciences and gardening arts during the late European renaissance, reached its heyday during the 18th century when Western colonizers explored, studied, collected, and spread plants all over the world. The 500-year history of botanical gardens is full of human curiosity through the exploration of the mysteries of nature and exotic plants, a gradual cognitive history of human exploration of nature, the use and transformation of nature, and harmonious coexistence with nature. This process in the history of humans begins in a chaotic and disordered plant kingdom and results in classified cognition. The paper attempts to analyze the progress of scientific research and the changes of social functions in the world of botanical gardens in the past 500 years from the dimensions of science and art, and uses history as a mirror to examine the future development and historic undertakings of Chinese botanical gardens. This article starts with artistic appearance to provide an overview of the 500-year development process of the world’s botanical gardens, while focusing on milestone events of the history in order to provide reference of thinking for Chinese botanical garden community.

Key words: botanical garden planning and design, garden art, landscape design, colonial agriculture, royal garden