生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (1): 8-17.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2001002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态群落物种共存的进化机制

张晓爱,赵亮,康玲   

  1. (中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,西宁 810001)
  • 收稿日期:2000-03-15 修回日期:2000-10-25 出版日期:2001-02-20 发布日期:2001-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 赵亮

Evolutionary mechanisms of species coexistence in ecological communities

ZHANG Xiao-Ai, ZHAO Liang, KANG Ling   

  1. Northwest Planteau Institute of Biology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xining 810001
  • Received:2000-03-15 Revised:2000-10-25 Online:2001-02-20 Published:2001-02-20
  • Contact: ZHAO Liang

摘要: 本文概述了目前对生态群落的物种共存研究中存在的若干问题及动、植物群落物种共存机制的研究进展。植物群落的物种共存主要介绍与环境、种子再迁移、生态位分化、竞争平衡理论、种库假设、再生生态位等有关的几种假设、生态学上相似种的共存及“原”群落概念等。动物群落的物种共存机制主要从以下几方面叙述:(1)异质环境中的资源分割,主要指动物斑状滋养的不同利用;(2)避免竞争排斥的行为机制,如边缘效应、聚群效应、扩散行为、相互作用和干扰;(3)特化者和泛化者的共存,包括:竞争是物种向多功能进化的作用力、最佳觅食理论与生态学特化及特化概念的发展。最后指出进一步研究的方向。

Abstract: This review is divided into three parts. First, several problems in studying mechanisms of species coexistence in ecological communities are generalized. Second, some concepts explaining plant and animal species coexistence are reviewed. Within plant communities, these concepts include environmental factors, seed re-immigration, niche differentiation, balanced competition, species-pool, regeneration niche, coexistence of ecologically similar species and the null community. In animal communities, the effects of patch, edge, congregation, dispersion, interference and response to environmental heterogeneity are discussed. Finally, coexistence of specialists and generalists are discussed.