生物多样性 ›› 2000, Vol. 08 ›› Issue (2): 198-207.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000028

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国野生稻遗传资源的保护及其在育种中的利用

范树国,张再君,刘林,刘鸿先,梁承邺   

  1. 1 (中国科学院华南植物研究所,  广州 510650)
    2 (湖北农学院,  荆州 434103)
  • 收稿日期:1999-04-05 修回日期:1999-10-08 出版日期:2000-05-20 发布日期:2000-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 范树国

Conservation of wild rice genetic resources in China and their utilization in breeding

FAN Shu-Guo,ZHANG Zai-Jun,LIU Lin,LIU Hong-Xian,LIANG Cheng-Ye   

  1. 1)  South China Institute of Botany , Chinese Academy of sciences , Guangzhou  510650
    2)  Hubei Agricultural College , Jingzhou  434103)
  • Received:1999-04-05 Revised:1999-10-08 Online:2000-05-20 Published:2000-05-20
  • Contact: FAN Shu-Guo

摘要: 我国有三种野生稻,即普通野生稻(Oryza rufipogon)、药用野生稻(O.officinalis)和瘤粒野生稻(O.meyeriana)。这三种野生稻均被列为国家二级保护植物(渐危种)。调查结果表明,野生稻由于其自然群落大量丧失而濒危,濒危程度为普通野生稻>药用野生稻>瘤粒野生稻。造成濒危的主要原因是人为的破坏活动。人类的经济活动导致了野生稻生境丧失、生境质量不断恶化、栖息地越来越少;人类的活动也导致了外来种的入侵。目前,对野生稻的保护措施主要有就地保护(原地保护或原位保护)和迁地保护(易地保护或异位保护)。易地保护包括以种子保存的种质厍、以种茎保存的种质圃和以器官培养物作为材料的超低温保存。野生稻具有许多优良特性,如特强的耐寒性、高的抗病虫性、优质蛋白质含量高、功能叶片耐衰老的特异性、特强的再生性、良好的繁茂性及生长优势等等,这些优良特性已被广泛用于水稻常规育种和杂交育种中,并取得了巨大的社会效益和经济效益。有关野生稻生物技术方面的研究,如花药培养、原生质培养、体细胞杂交和基因工程等方面已取得了较大的进展。野生稻将在水稻育种中发挥越来越重要的作用。

AbstractThree species of wild rice , i.e. ,Oryza rufipogon , Oryza of ficinalis and Oryza meyeriana , were found in China , and had been listed as the national second-grade protected plants ( gradually endangered species) of China. It was investigated that Chinese wild rice have been in imminent danger due to rapid loss of their natural community. Oryza rufipogon is in most imminent danger , while Oryza officinalis and Oryza meyeriana are less imminent . The main cause is economic activities which led to the loss of habitat , continuous deterioration of habitat quality , sustained reduction of habitat and invasion of exotic species. At present , some measures have been taken to protect Chinese wild rice , such as in situ conservation (on-site maintenance) and ex situ conservation (off-site maintenance) . Ex situ conservation includes seed-preserved genebank ,whole plant-preserved field genebank and callus-conserved cryopreservation. Chinese wild rice species possess many excellent characteristics , such as extreme cold-tolerance , high resistance to diseases and pests , good quality and high content of protein , senescence-tolerance of functional leaves , strong regenerating capability , good quality of lush growth , good growing dominance , which have been widely used in conventional rice breeding and hybrid rice breeding , and huge social and economic benefits have been achieved. Rapid progress has been made in biotechnology of Chinese wild rice , especially in anther culture , protoplast culture , somatic cell hybridization and gene transfer. It can be expected that Chinese wild rice resources will play more and more important role in rice breeding.