生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (1): 61-69.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060150

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国“三江并流”纵谷地蚤类丰富度与区系沿纬度梯度的水平分布格局

龚正达1*,张丽云1,段兴德1,冯锡光1,葛军旗2,栗冬梅2,刘起勇2   

  1. 1 (云南省地方病防治所, 大理 671000)
    2 (中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制所, 北京 102206)
  • 收稿日期:2006-07-18 修回日期:2006-10-17 出版日期:2007-01-20 发布日期:2007-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 龚正达

Species richness and fauna of fleas along a latitudinal gradient in the Three Parallel Rivers landscape, China

Zhengda Gong1*, Liyun Zhang1, Xingde Duan1, Xiguang Feng1, Junqi Ge2, Dongmei Li2, Qiyong Liu2   

  1. 1 Yunnan Institute of Endemic Diseases Control and Prevention, Dali 671000, China
    2 National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Preven-tion, Beijing 102206, China
  • Received:2006-07-18 Revised:2006-10-17 Online:2007-01-20 Published:2007-01-20
  • Contact: Zhengda Gong

摘要: 为探讨横断山区蚤类物种丰富度与区系沿纬度梯度变化的基本规律以及影响它们分布的主要生态因子, 作者就云南西部横断山区21º–28ºN的8个纬度梯度带目前所知分布的9科45属153种(亚种)蚤类的水平分布资料进行了综合整理和统计分析。结果表明: (1) 这一区域蚤类科、属、种丰富度, 特有种丰富度和特有度, 以及东洋界和古北界区系成分物种丰富度沿纬度梯度的变化, 都呈现了随纬度增加先增高后降低的单峰分布格局, 最大峰值出现在25º–27ºN之间, 研究认为, 形成物种密度高峰的主要因素是两大区系分界线和交错区的边缘效应; (2) 东洋和古北两大区系成分构成比的水平分布格局截然不同, 前者随纬度的增加递减, 后者则随纬度的增加呈递增的趋势, 两区系成分过渡或交错区的跨度在23º–29ºN之间, 并在25º–27ºN形成交汇和分异的中心; (3) 聚类分析结果表明, 横断山8个纬度梯度带的蚤类总体上归为3个主要地域区系类型, 反映出纬度、地理气候环境等因素对蚤类区系及物种分布的影响, 以及蚤类区系和物种组成沿纬度梯度的水平分布格局与地理和气候环境的统一性; (4) 蚤类的属、种β多样性沿纬度梯度的水平分布基本呈现双峰格局, 峰值反映出蚤类的组成及分布在不同纬度梯度、气候带之间的过渡与转变, 说明β多样性的水平分布格局与纬度梯度的气候、环境变化程度的关系密切, 以及过渡区的边缘效应对两区系物种丰富度高峰的形成具有重要影响; (5) 横断山区蚤类物种丰富度与区系的水平分布与垂直分布的规律和格局基本相同, 显示了具有同源性的水平地带性与垂直地带性对蚤类空间分布格局所产生的类似影响, 证实了横断山区蚤类物种丰富度与区系的水平分布格局理应出现近似于它们垂直分布的一般规律与格局的推论; (6) 横断山25º–27ºN的区域形成了两大区系物种交汇和分异的中心, 由于边缘效应和复杂的地理景观, 这里蚤类科、属、种、特有种都具有较高多样性, 据此作者推断, 这里可能是我国横断山区多物种保存、分布和分化的核心区。

AbstractIn order to inquire into the basic rules of the species richness and fauna of fleas along latitudinal gradient and the main ecological factors affecting their distribution, 153 flea species, belonging to 45 genera and 9 families, were collected in mountainous areas at northern latitudes from 21° to 28° in the Hengduan Mountains of western Yunnan, China. All the data were analyzed synthetically with statistics. The results showed that: (1) The richness of flea families, genera, species, endemic species, ratios of endemic species and species of different faunal realms increased first and then decreased with increasing latitude, peaking at 25° to 27°N. The unimodal pattern may be the result of an edge effect between two faunal regions. (2) The horizontal patterns of Oriental and Palaearctic elements were significantly different. A gradually decreasing tendency appeared in Oriental elements with increasing latitude, whereas there was an increasing tendency in Palaearctic. The transitional zone of the two realms ranged from 23º to 29º N and formed an overlap zone and divergence center at 25º to 27ºN. (3) Three main ecological types were identified in the Hengduan Mountains based on cluster analysis. The results reflected the influence of latitude, climate and vegetation on species distribution and community compositions, and also the concordance of flea species distribution and latitu-dinal gradient. (4) The horizontal distribution of β diversity showed two peaks, indicating the transition and transformation of flea species composition and distribution along different gradients, and thus was associated with climate and environmental change. (5) The horizontal patterns of species richness and fauna were simi-lar to the vertical pattern in the Hengduan Mountains. (6) The zones from 25º to 27ºN were the center of dif-ferentiation and overlap of the two realms. Because of the edge effect and complex landscape, the families, genera, species and endemic species of fleas here all showed high diversity, suggesting that this may be the core areas for diversity conservation, distribution and differentiation in China. We conclude that the main factors affecting flea diversity in the Hengduan Mountains are the edge effect in this transitional area of fauna and flora, and heterogeneity of climate, geographical condition and vegetation.