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Table of Content
    Volume 23 Issue 3
    08 June 2015

    Mammals are higher vertebrates. There are 5,488 mammal species in 153 families. Jiang et al. (pp. 351–364 of this issue) collated the mammal diversity in China according to the newest taxonomic system of mammals and the new species and new records mammal species in China. Start from the left upper corner, from the left to right, from the upper to bottom, they are the representative members of the 12 orders of Mammalia in China: Amur hedgehog Erinaceus amurensis (Photoed

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    Orginal Article
    DNA barcode: from species to biome
    Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  279-280.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015152
    Abstract ( 985 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (742KB) ( 2333 )   Save
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    Plant DNA barcodes: implications for phylogenetics
    Xiaoguo Xiang, Wei Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  281-282.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015065
    Abstract ( 1020 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (519KB) ( 2489 )   Save
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    DNA barcodes, speciation and taxonomy in plants
    Jianquan Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  283-285.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015066
    Abstract ( 1051 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (413KB) ( 2196 )   Save
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    Applications of DNA barcoding in biodiversity inventory and assessment
    Lianming Gao
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  286-287.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015070
    Abstract ( 934 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (517KB) ( 2302 )   Save
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    Application of DNA barcoding to conservation of highly valued, rare and endangered species
    Shiliang Zhou, Chao Xu, Wenpan Dong, Tao Cheng
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  288-290.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015090
    Abstract ( 863 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (599KB) ( 1958 )   Save
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    Applications of DNA barcoding in evolutionary ecology
    Nancai Pei
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  291-292.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015063
    Abstract ( 1289 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (549KB) ( 2749 )   Save
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    Applications of DNA barcoding in conservation biogeography
    Jihong Huang, Jianhua Huang
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  293-294.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015124
    Abstract ( 870 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (487KB) ( 1915 )   Save
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    Application of DNA barcoding in phylofloristics study
    Xuejun Ge
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  295-296.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015064
    Abstract ( 874 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (517KB) ( 2601 )   Save
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    Prospects for plant DNA barcoding
    Dezhu Li, Chunxia Zeng
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  297-298.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015135
    Abstract ( 913 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (503KB) ( 2814 )   Save
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    DNA barcoding in species identification of seashells: a case study in the ecological monitoring zone of Daya Bay, Guangdong
    Haitao Li, Baoxue Zhang, Yang Gao, Xiaojun Shi, Peng Zhou
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  299-305.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014261
    Abstract ( 1062 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (650KB) ( 2863 )   Save
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    To improve the accuracy of seashell species identification in the ecological monitoring zone of Daya Bay, Guangdong, we used DNA barcoding based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA genes from specimens sampled in the winter of 2013. Among the 26 morphospecies, 15 can be identified to the species level using phylogenetic analyses. Some species, Ptychobela suturalis and Funa sp., were difficult to identify by shell morphology but were successfully identified using DNA barcoding. A high level of intraspecific sequence variation was observed in Paphia gallus, Nassarius siquijorensis and Turricula javana, suggesting that cryptic species may occur in these three morphospecies. Although the barcoding gap does not exist between intra- and interspecific variations based on COI and 16S rRNA genes, a phylogenetic approach can provide effective identification. DNA barcoding is an effective tool for accurate species identification and discovery of cryptic species in seashells.

    Current freshwater fish resources and the application of DNA barcoding in species identification in Gansu Province
    Tai Wang, Yanping Zhang, Lihong Guan, Yanyan Du, Zhongyu Lou, Wenlong Jiao
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  306-313.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014185
    Abstract ( 943 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (696KB) ( 2589 )   Save
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    Between June and September in 2012, we investigated fish resources from the Yellow River, Jialing rivers and Hexi inland rivers in Gansu Province, China. Three thousand specimens were collected, belonging to 64 species, 38 genera, 10 families and 5 orders. Cyprinidae was the predominant species, accounting for 45% of the total species. Diversity analysis showed that fish diversity in the Jialing River basin was the highest (H = 2.15-3.27), followed by the inland rivers (H = 2.01-2.83). Two tributaries of the Yellow River, the Xiahe River and the Zhuanglang River had relatively lower diversity levels with the H values of 1.38 and 1.09, respectively. The Pielou index of Shule River was the highest with a value of 1.10, while that of the Heihe River was the lowest with a value of 0.68. The Simpson index of the Zhuanglang River was 0.34, the highest of the investigated rivers, while the trunk streams of Jialing River was the lowest. A total of 662 specimens of 49 species were randomly selected for DNA barcoding analysis using a partial sequence of the COI gene. The results indicated that most species formed monophyletic groups in the neighbor-joining tree. The average K2P genetic divergence was 0.88% within species and 9.99% among species. A significant barcode gap was found between intraspecific genetic distance and interspecific genetic distance. A nucleotide diagnostic method was needed for further identification because the K2P genetic distance of three species pairs (between Triplophysa stoliczkae and T. dalaica, T. robusta and T. siluroides, Schizopygopsis kialingensis and S. pylzovi) was less than 2%. Cryptic species may exist within Triplophysa stoliczkae and Phoxinus lagowskii. Triplophysa robusta and T. siluroides cannot be distinguished through COI gene sequences. The results showed that molecular methods, morphological characteristic and geographical distribution of species should be combined in order to comprehensively and accurately identify closely related species and geographic populations.

    Qualitative study of wild camels (Camelus ferus) home range in Lop Nur, China
    Lei Yuan, Hao Ma, Yun Cheng, Huan Yang, Guli SaGen, Adiya Yadamsuren, Haiyong Zhu, Youqing Ma, Jianlin Wang, Shuo Zhang, Xingye Ma, Qing’an Diao, Shaochuang Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  314-320.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015097
    Abstract ( 1317 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (408KB) ( 2038 )   Save
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    The home range of wild camels (Camelus ferus) was studied qualitatively using standard techniques. This study focused on the home range of wild camels in the Lop Nur, China using GPS satellite tracking collar technology. From May 2012 to July 2013, GPS collars were fitted to 8 wild camels in areas to the north of the Arjin Mountains and Aqik Valley, the most important habitat of the wild camel. The 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP) home range ranged from 1,775 to 11,768 km2 with a mean range of 7,349 ± 1,323 km2. The total square kilometers of the home range was 32,821 km2, nearly 23.1% of the entire wild camel range in Lop Nur. Overlap in home range was common between different individuals. One individual was isolated compared to the other 7 individuals. The home range of these 7 individuals was 24,910 km2, 17.5% of the entire wild camel range in Lop Nur. The overlapping area of the 7 individuals was 515 km2. The home range area was largest in the autumn and smallest in the spring. The autumn home range was four times larger than that of the spring range. Home range was also affected by phonological phase of the individuals though the results were not significant. The range during breeding season was 879 ± 320 km2 and 998 ± 106 km2 in the anestrous season. The results of this study provide a preliminary description of the home range of wild camels in Lop Nur and provide a basis for adjustment of the current management plan for core zone and buffer zone in the Lop Nur Wild Camel National Nature Reserve.

    Community characteristics and spatial distribution of dominant tree species in a secondary forest of Daqing Mountains, southwestern Guangxi, China
    You Nong, Lu Zheng, Hongyan Jia, Lihua Lu, Dewei Huang, Bohua Huang, Liqun Lei
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  321-331.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014145
    Abstract ( 1141 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (656KB) ( 2333 )   Save
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    In order to determine species characteristics and the factors affecting distribution patterns of dominant tree species of secondary forests in Daqing Mountains, we analyzed community composition, DBH size structure, species distribution and spatial correlations using a point pattern analysis of O-ring statistical method. There were a total of 109 species including 58 tree species, 29 shrub species and 22 herb species in a 1 ha plot. The floristic composition was pan-tropical with Quercus griffithii and Eberhardtia aurata as the co-dominant species. These two species accounted for 30.8% of the total number of individuals. Neolitsea chuii, Beilschmiedia fordii and Camellia cuspidate were the secondary tree species of the community. The DBH size structure of the populations showed a reverse J-shaped pattern with a greater number of small diameter (1-5 cm) individuals. Species spatial distribution with environmental heterogeneity was aggregated but decreased significantly with increasing spatial scales. Spatial distribution and heterogeneity were independent at most spatial scales among the main species populations.

    Diversity and spatial distribution of lianas in a mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains, SW China
    , Wenyao Liu,
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  332-340.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014224
    Abstract ( 1030 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (506KB) ( 1992 )   Save
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    Lianas are an important component of tropical and subtropical forests, and influence forest dynamics, ecosystem processes, and the formation and maintenance of forest biodiversity. In the present study, liana diversity and their vertical and horizontal spatial distribution were investigated in a mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains, SW China. A total of 1,145 individuals of 29 liana species (DBH≥0.2 cm) were recorded in twenty 20 m × 50 m plots. In the forest the most species-rich families were the Smilacaceae (4 species) and Rosaceae (3 species). Vitaceae was the most abundant family represented by 363 individuals (31.7% of total individuals). The understory lianas (usually DBH < 1 cm) had greater species richness and abundance than subcanopy and canopy lianas. The majority of lianas individuals (55.7%) were found in the understory, 28.8% were in the canopy, and only 15.5% were in the subcanopy. The vertical distribution of lianas showed obvious differences among stem diameter-classes and climbing mechanisms. In terms of the horizontal spatial distribution, topography was an important factor governing the diversity and distribution of lianas. The species richness, abundance and basal area in the valley were 171%, 420% and 606% greater, respectively, than hillslope sites. A total of 12 species grew exclusively in valley sites. These results suggest that lianas have habitat preferences in the mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests of the Ailao Mountains.

    Plant Diversity
    Effects of rehabilitation species on slope vegetation diversity and soil and water conservation
    Shengwang Pan, Mingcheng Hu, Jinghong Luo, Yunxiao Wu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  341-350.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014115
    Abstract ( 977 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (739KB) ( 1748 )   Save
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    China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

    Orginal Article
    China’s mammalian diversity
    Zhigang Jiang, Yong Ma, Yi Wu, Yingxiang Wang, Zuojian Feng, Kaiya Zhou, Shaoying Liu, Zhenhua Luo, Chunwang Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  351-364.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014202
    Abstract ( 2150 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (1125KB) ( 3641 )   Save
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    China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

    A revised taxonomy for Chinese reptiles
    Bo Cai, Yuezhao Wang, Yueying Chen, Jiatang Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  365-382.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015037
    Abstract ( 2398 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (1198KB) ( 2875 )   Save
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    Based on taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, we presented a comprehensive reassessment of the classification systems, updated corresponding Chinese scientific names and concluded the Checklist of Chinese Reptilia. Our analysis suggested that in China there are a total of 3 orders, 30 families, 132 genera, and 462 reptile species. The order Crocodylia includes one family, one genus, and one species. The order, Testudines includes 6 families, 18 genera, and 33 species. The order Squamata includes the suborder Lacertilia and Serpentes. Lacertilia includes 10 families, 41 genera, and 189 species and Serpentes includes 13 families, 72 genera, and 239 species. Compared to Fauna Sinica (Reptilia 1): General Accounts of Reptilia,Testudoformes and Crocodiliformes, Fauna Sinica (Reptilia 2): Squamata (Lacertilia) and Snakes of China, we added 81 species, revised 2 species and excluded 12 synonymous, 6 hybrid, and 7 undistributed reptile species. At the genus level, there are 23 additional, 6 revised, 15 synonymous genera. At the family level, there are 5 additional and 2 revised families. There is no change at the order or suborder levels. Studies of morphology and molecular phylogeny on taxonomic categories of reptiles reflects several divergences. We discusssed these controversies and explained choices of the Checklist of Chinese Reptilia in this article.

    Cryptic biodiversity of coccoid green algae and progress in the phylogenic studies
    Huiyin Song, Qi Zhang, Yuxin Hu, Guoxiang Liu, Zhengyu Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  383-397.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014252
    Abstract ( 1239 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (551KB) ( 2251 )   Save
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    Coccoid green algae primarily refers to algae that are solitary living organisms spherical or ellipsoid in shape. It is widely distributed around the world living in freshwater, seawater and subaerial habitats. The similarity in shape of these organisms hides a huge cryptic biodiversity. Coccoid green algae phylogeny belongs primarily to four orders and some incertae sedis taxa of two classes. This paper reports the changes in taxonomic study methods of coccoid green algae and the resulting cryptic biodiversity that has been discovered. A total of 15 new genera (now totaling 40 genera for coccoid green algae) and 12 new combinations were discovered from collected specimens. This paper focuses on the discovery and renaming of coccoid green algae in Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae after 1998. We present the diagnostic features, phylogenic changes and reasons for the discoveries and remaining. The changes in the genera of Chlorella and Scenedesmus are presented in details. We also discuss the application of DNA-based methods in taxonomic identification of coccoid green algae and how differences in phylogenetic position have become the main basis for taxonomic identifaction. Finally, we address the problems in phylogenic studies of coccoid green algae by which taxonomic location based on the morphological features have not yet been validated by phylogenetic methods. In the future, algae taxonomists should combine phylogenetic methods with morphological methods to explore the cryptic biodiversity of coccoid green algae.

    Recent advances in the study of ecological speciation
    Haomin Lyu, Renchao Zhou, Suhua Shi
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  398-407.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015068
    Abstract ( 1603 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (367KB) ( 2893 )   Save
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    Speciation is a basic evolutionary process, which plays a fundamental role in the formation of biodiversity. Ecological speciation refers to the process by which barriers to gene flow evolve between populations as a result of ecologically-based divergent selection. In spite of the continual accumulation of experimental and theoretical evidence, our understanding of ecological speciation remains incomplete. In this review, we first briefly introduce the history of research on ecological speciation and focus on its three components: a source of divergent selection, a form of reproductive isolation, and a genetic mechanism linking the two. Sources of divergent selection include differences in environment or niche, certain forms of sexual selection, and the ecological interaction of populations. There are various barriers of reproductive isolation, and we summarize pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolation mechanisms and their roles in ecological speciation. Pleiotropy and linkage disequilibrium are the two mechanisms to link divergent selection and reproductive isolation. The applications of next generation sequencing technologies have contributed greatly to the research of gene and genome based ecological speciation. In addition, we review the recent advances in ecological speciation understanding, including the genomic basis of parallel evolution and the theories of speciation-with-gene-flow. By comparison of up-down strategy and down-up strategy, we put forward that the combination of these ideas which can provide more powerful and precise methods to find the ecological speciation genes. More detailed phenotypic description and more complete genomic information, as well as more representative species can facilitate greater exploration of ecological speciation.

    Conserving pollinator diversity and improving pollination services in agricultural landscapes
    Piaopiao Dai, Xuzhu Zhang, Yunhui Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  408-418.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014248
    Abstract ( 1298 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (435KB) ( 3355 )   Save
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    Pollinators provide the vital process of pollination to plants. Maintaining diverse pollinators in ecosystems is essential to global food security, human welfare, and to buffer the negative ecological impacts of climate change. Globally, pollinators are experiencing serious threats from land use change, chemical pesticide use, the introduction of alien invasive species and climate change, leading to a decline in pollinator diversity. This decline can cause decreases in the yield and quality of animal-pollinated crops. Here we propose following three approaches to conserve pollinator diversity and improve pollination services in agricultural landscapes: (1) wildlife-friendly farm practices, such as reduced application of pesticides or conversion to organic farming; (2) promotion of landscape diversity, including conserving and establishing suitable semi-natural habitats, maintaining residual natural habitats, improving crop diversity and optimizing resources or habitats; (3) the use of local pollinator species in industrial applications. Further research is needed examining biological characteristics of pollinator, demand and provision of pollination services, as well as the effects of management practices on pollinator diversity and pollination services.

    Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) and their significance in China’s national plant conservation strategy
    Wenzhong Yang, Zhenyong Xiang, Shanshan Zhang, Hongmei Kang, Fuqiang Shi
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  419-425.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014183
    Abstract ( 1583 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (635KB) ( 2658 )   Save
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    The National Implementation Plan for Rescuing and Conserving China’s Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP) was formulated when the concept of PSESP was presented in recent years. However, the concept of PSESP has been controversial since its introduction and criticized as an inaccurate theory with little value to plant species conservation programs. To better understand the theory behind PSESP and relevant conservation strategies, we reviewed the history of plant conservation in China and summarized how conservation strategies regarding rare and endangered speceis, key protected species and PSESP were initiated. PSESP can be understood through the perspectives on species selection criteria, thresholds of the extremely small populations and connections to previous protected species lists. Conservation strategies and actions were compared across time scales. From this review, we suggest that population-based PSESP conservation exemplifies the essence of species protection, i.e., species are maintained through populations. To conserve PSESP, traditional methods such as plant inventory, in situ conservation and ex situ conservation need to be improved. New methods such as population demography, near situ or quasi in situ conservation and population restoration and reestablishment should be developed. Finally, we conclud that the theory of PSESP with its relevant conservation programs represents a milestone in China’s plant conservation, because it will enhance the interplay between conservation practice and scientific research.

    Researches and conservation for plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP)
    Weibang Sun, Chunyan Han
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (3):  426-429.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015026
    Abstract ( 1164 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (625KB) ( 2132 )   Save
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