Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 189-195.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13238

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Roles of semiochemicals in regulating intraspecific competition of pollinating wasps of Ficus racemosa

Xiangzong Geng1, 2, Bo Wang2, Aiqun Jia1, *(), Ruiwu Wang2, *()   

  1. 1 School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094
    2 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2013-11-08 Accepted:2014-03-16 Online:2014-04-03
  • Jia Aiqun,Wang Ruiwu;

Intraspecific competition for mating opportunities, oviposition sites, and food resources is ubiquitous for insects. Semiochemical-based chemical communication may play important roles in the regulation of intraspecific competition. The aims of this study are (1) to investigate the possible occurrence of intraspecific competition among individuals of pollinating fig wasps (Ceratosolen fusciceps) of Ficus racemosa with manipulative experiments, and (2) to assess the potential function of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in regulating the behavior of fig wasps to avoid excessive competition using head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that wasps laid more eggs when they were introduced into the syconium sequentially, compared with simultaneously introduced wasps. A chemical analysis showed that the VOCs differed quantitatively and qualitatively. Several of the 22 identified VOCs functioned to deter oviposition in other insect species. Our results indicated that intraspecific competition at oviposition sites may occur among individuals of C. fusciceps and that semiochemicals may play important roles in regulating the oviposition behavior of this species. These factors could significantly affect the fitness of both fig wasps and the host fig.

Key words: Ficus racemosa, Ceratosolen fusciceps, intraspecific competition, HS-SPME & GC-MS, semiochemicals

Fig. 1

The galls and seeds proportion (A), number of abortion flowers (B), and the amount of wasp offspring (C) of the consecutive and staggered. ***P<0.001"

Fig. 2

Total ion chromatogram of volatile organic compounds in fig wasps (a), female phase syconia (b), and syconia and fig wasps (c)"

Table 1

The component of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) of fig wasps, female phase syconia, and syconia and fig wasps"

Organic chemicals
Rentention time (min)
相对含量 Relative amount (%)
Foundresses and fig
Female phase
萜烯烃类 Terpene hydrocarbon
1 环己烯 Cyclohexene 6.43 0.558
2 环己烷* Cyclohexane* 6.77 0.28
3 左旋-α-蒎烯* 1S-alpha-pinene* 8.56 0.39
4 α-蒎烯* Alpha-pinene* 8.61 0.09
5 3-亚甲基-1, 1-二甲基-2-乙烯基环己烷*
Cyclohexane, 2-ethenyl-1, 1-dimethy l-3-methylene*
14.98 2.10
6 α-荜澄茄油烯* Alpha-cubebene* 23.95 0.68
7 白菖烯* (+)-Calarene* 24.05 0.97
8 α-柏木烯* (-)-Alpha-cedrene* 24.16 0.33
9 (-)-α-蒎烯* Copaene* 25.23 4.32
10 荜澄茄油烯* (-)-B-cubebene* 25.42 0.89
11 (-)-异丁香烯* (-)-Isocaryophyllene* 26.24 1.55
12 石竹烯* Caryophyllene* 26.40 2.04
醇类 Alcohols
13 叶醇* Leaf alcohol* 6.36 2.65
14 3-己烯-1-醇 3-Hexenol 6.39 1.75 1.52
15 正己醇* 1-Hexanol* 6.68 0.55
16 桉叶油醇 Eucalyptol 11.90 0.92 3.16
芳香族化合物 Aromatic compound
17 苯甲醚* Anisol* 8.11 0.19
18 苯甲醛* Benzaldehyde* 9.53 7.74
19 2, 5-二甲基苯甲酮 2,5-Dimethylbenzophenone 9.55 0.77
20 苯甲醇* Benzyl alcohol* 12.29 26.99
21 乙酸苄酯* Benzyl acetate* 16.77 0.25
22 1-(3-Methylbutyl)-2, 3, 5-trimethylbenzene* 26.62 5.24
含氮类化合物 Nitrogen compounds
23 2-Methyl-acridone 9.55 0.53
24 2-Chloro-4-quinolinemethanol 9.58 0.20
25 3-Phenyl-6-methyl-2, 1-benzisoxazo 9.58 0.52
26 2-氨基-1-苯乙醇* Phenylethanolamine* 12.64 0.12
27 1-硝基-2-甲基蒽醌*
9, 10-Anthracenedione, 2-methyl-1-nitro*
15.07 0.19
28 1-乙基-1H-苯并咪唑-2-胺* H-benzimidazol-2-amine, 1-ethyl-* 25.75 0.18
酯类 Ester
29 乙酸叶醇酯 Leaf acetate 11.06 1.17 0.20
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