Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 717-724.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14184

Special Issue: On Species Catalogue of China

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Distribution and abundance of Amur tiger, Amur leopard and their ungulate prey in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin

Wenhong Xiao, Limin Feng, Xiaodan Zhao, Haitao Yang, Hailong Dou, Yanchao Cheng, Pu Mou, Tianming Wang*(), Jianping Ge   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2014-08-30 Accepted:2014-11-12 Online:2014-12-11
  • Wang Tianming

The Hunchun National Nature Reserve (HNNR) serves as core habitat for both Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) in Northeast China. To investigate the relative abundance of wildlife and human disturbance within the reserve, we analyzed images from a monitoring network of 83 camera traps deployed between April and June of 2013 in HNNR. Among the 6,060 total trap nights, 18 species of mammals were detected from the images, including four Mustelids, three Felids, two species each from Canidae, Cervidae and Sciuridae, and one species each from Suidae, Ursidae, Moschidae, Erinaceidae and Leporidae, respectively. Cameras photographed 11 tigers and 13 leopards. Relative abundance index (RAI) of tigers (0.84) was higher than that of leopards (0.48). RAIs of ungulates, from high to low, were sika deer (Cervus nippon) (2.18), Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) (1.53) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) (0.92). RAI of human activities (40.64) and livestock grazing (2.76) were both significantly higher than animal species. The data also indicated that tigers and sika deer were mainly restricted to the core zone of HNNR and that their abundance was lower in the community-based natural resource management zone. In comparison, RAIs of Amur leopard were fairly similar among the three functional zones, Siberian roe deer tended to be more abundant in the northern section of HNNR but differences were not significant, and wild boar RAI was lower in the core zone. Frequent disturbance from human activities and livestock grazing throughout the core zone may be the most negative impact on wildlife in HNNR.

Key words: camera traps, Panthera tigris altaica, Panthera pardus orientalis, relative abundance, spatial distribution, human disturbance

Fig. 1

Functional zones of Hunchun National Nature Reserve and camera-trapping locations"

Fig. 2

The spatial distribution of relative abundance index (RAI) of the prey of tiger and leopard in Hunchun National Nature Reserve"


Fig. 3

The spatial distribution of relative abundance index (RAI) of human disturbance in Hunchun National Nature Reserve"

Fig. 4

The relative abundance index (RAI) of Amur tiger, Amur leopard, their prey and human disturbance in different functional zones of Hunchun National Nature Reserve. Different letters above bars show differences among functional zones when P = 0.05."


List of species and human disturbances recorded by camera traps, showing the conservation status of each species, the number of independent events, relative abundance index (RAI) and the number of trap sites where the species was captured in Hunchun National Nature Reserve"

Common name
Scientific name

保护级别 Protection Level 独立事件数
Independent events
% of all captures
No. of trap sites
% of all trap sites
China Key Protected Wild Animals List
IUCN status
CITES appendix
食肉目 Carnivora
东北虎 Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica 猫科 Felidae I EN 附录I 51 1.49% 0.84 21 25%
东北豹 Amur leopard Panthera pardus orientalis 猫科 Felidae I CR 附录I 29 0.85% 0.48 15 18%
豹猫 Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis 猫科 Felidae LC 附录II 4 0.12% 0.07 2 2%
黑熊 Asian black bear Ursus thibetanus 熊科 Ursidae II VU 附录I 4 0.12% 0.07 4 5%
赤狐 Red fox Vulpes vulpes 犬科 Canidae LC 58 1.70% 0.96 26 31%
貉 Raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides 犬科 Canidae LC 13 0.38% 0.21 6 7%
狗獾 Asian badger Meles leucurus 鼬科 Mustelidae LC 158 4.63% 2.61 39 47%
黄鼬 Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica 鼬科 Mustelidae LC 2 0.06% 0.03 2 2%
黄喉貂 Yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula 鼬科 Mustelidae II LC 17 0.50% 0.28 12 14%
水獭 Eurasian otter Lutra lutra 鼬科 Mustelidae II NT 附录I 1 0.03% 0.02 1 1%
偶蹄目 Artiodactyla
野猪 Wild boar Sus scrofa 猪科 Suidae LC 56 1.64% 0.92 31 37%
狍 Siberian roe deer Capreolus pygargus 鹿科 Cervidae LC 93 2.72% 1.53 45 54%
梅花鹿 Sika deer Cervus nippon 鹿科 Cervidae I LC 132 3.87% 2.18 37 45%
原麝 Siberian musk deer Moschus moschiferus 麝科 Moschidae I VU 附录II 4 0.12% 0.07 2 2%
啮齿目 Rodentia
松鼠 Eurasian red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris 松鼠科 Sciuridae LC 3 0.09% 0.05 3 4%
花鼠 Siberian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus 松鼠科 Sciuridae LC 57 1.67% 0.94 12 14%
猬形目 Erinaceomorpha
东北刺猬 Amur hedgehog Erinaceus amurensis 猬科 Erinaceidae LC 7 0.21% 0.12 6 7%
兔形目 Lagomorpha
东北兔 Manchurian hare Lepus mandshuricus 兔科 Leporidae LC 94 2.75% 1.55 16 19%
人类活动 Human activities 2,463 72.17% 40.64 82 99%
放牧 Livestock grazing 167 4.89% 2.76 14 17%
合计 Total 3,413 100% 56.33 83
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