Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 574-582.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14116

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Phylogenetic structure of individuals with different DBH sizes in a deciduous broad-leaved forest community in the temperate-subtropical ecological transition zone, China

Siyuan Ren1, Ting Wang1, *(), Yan Zhu2, Yongzhong Ye1, Zhiliang Yuan1, Cong Li3, Na Pan1, Luxin Li1   

  1. 1 Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 Xinzheng Meteorological Bureau, Xinzheng, Henan 451100
  • Received:2014-06-06 Accepted:2014-09-28 Online:2014-10-09
  • Wang Ting E-mail:tingwang01@126.com

Phylogenetic structure of a community could effectively reflect underlying ecological processes of a community. Understanding phylogenetic structure of a community will help reveal the ecological processes associated with community dynamics. Data in a 1-ha plot were divided into quadrats at three spatial scales (10 m×10 m, 20 m×20 m, and 25 m×25 m) and three DBH sizes (1 cm ≤ DBH<5 cm, 5 cm ≤ DBH<10 cm, DBH ≥ 10 cm) to compare phylogenetic structures and to infer ecological processes of the community in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve. It was shown that NRI (net relatedness index) and NTI (net nearest taxa index) decreased with increasing spatial scales and DBH sizes. These results indicated that, phylogenetic structure of this community were overdispersed at different spatial scales and DBH sizes; and phylogenetic density dependence exerted higher effect on lager DBH classes than smaller ones. Our results suggested that phylogenetic density dependence is an important mechanism in regulating species diversity and shaping community structure of the deciduous broad-leaved forest in the temperate-subtropical ecological transition zone of China.

Key words: deciduous broad-leaved forest, phylogenetic structure, density dependence, spatial scale, DBH sizes

Fig. 1

Hypothesized phylogenetic relationship among 58 woody species of the deciduous broad-leaved forest in Baotianman National Nature Reserve"

Table 1

Mean pairwise phylogenetic distance (MPD) and net relatedness index (NRI) with different null models and different spatial scales in a 1-ha deciduous broad-leaved forest plot in Baotianman National Nature Reserve"

尺度
Scale
MPD平均随机值
Mean MPD randomization
MPD平均实际测量值
Mean MPD analysis
标准差
SD
净相关指数
NRI
零模型
Null model
10 m×10 m 178.13 262.55 43.57 -1.97 约束型 Constrained
263.58 262.55 84.12 0.03 非约束型 Unconstrained
20 m×20 m 196.36 288.74 41.59 -2.20 约束型 Constrained
286.36 288.74 71.55 -0.01 非约束型 Unconstrained
25 m×25 m 201.98 297.13 40.38 -2.27 约束型 Constrained
293.39 297.13 68.11 -0.04 非约束型 Unconstrained

Table 2

Mean nearest neighbor phylogenetic distance (MNND) and nearest taxon index (NTI) with different null models and different spatial scales in a 1-ha deciduous broad-leaved forest plot in Baotianman National Nature Reserve"

尺度
Scale
MNND平均随机值
Mean MNND randomization
MNND平均实际测量值
Mean MNND analysis
标准差
SD
最近邻体指数
NTI
零模型
Null model
10 m×10 m 172.63 238.72 55.80 -1.110 约束型 Constrained
231.88 238.72 89.65 0.007 非约束型 Unconstrained
20 m×20 m 141.09 199.81 49.40 -1.170 约束型 Constrained
188.50 199.81 74.82 -0.024 非约束型 Unconstrained
25 m×25 m 133.57 189.81 47.05 -1.180 约束型 Constrained
179.78 189.81 69.60 -0.034 非约束型 Unconstrained

Fig. 2

Net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI) with different null models and different spatial scales in a 1-ha deciduous broad-leaved forest plot in Baotianman National Nature Reserve. A1, A2, A3, a1, a2, a3 for unconstrained null models, and B1, B2, B3, b1, b2, b3 for constrained null models."

Table 3

The relationship of phylogenetic structure and DBH sizes and sample sizes in a 1-ha deciduous broad-leaved forest plot in Baotianman National Nature Reserve"

尺度 Scale (m) 模型 Model χ2 df P
10 m×10 m NRI vs. DBH 30.19 2 <0.0010
NTI vs. DBH 34.50 2 <0.0010
20 m×20 m NRI vs. DBH 3.92 2 0.1409
NTI vs. DBH 14.78 2 0.0006
25 m×25 m NRI vs. DBH 7.15 2 0.0280
NTI vs. DBH 12.64 2 0.0020
径级 DBH class
A (1 cm≤DBH< 5 cm) NRI vs. scale 0.93 2 0.6384
NTI vs. scale 6.51 2 0.0386
B (5 cm≤DBH<10 cm) NRI vs. scale 3.69 2 0.1574
NTI vs. scale 0.81 2 0.6671
C (DBH≥10 cm) NRI vs. scale 5.85 2 0.0538
NTI vs. scale 2.61 2 0.2712

Fig. 3

Dynamics of NRI(a) and NTI(b) with different DBH sizes and different spatial scales (10 m×10 m, 20 m×20 m, 25 m×25 m) in a 1-ha deciduous broad-leaved forest plot in Baotianman National Nature Reserve.A, Small DBH class (1cm ≤ DBH < 5 cm); B, Middle DBH class (5 cm≤ DBH < 10 cm); C, Large DBH class (DBH≥10 cm)."

[1] .APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161, 105-121.
[2] .Bin Y, Wang ZG, Wang ZM, Ye WH, Cao HL, Lian JY (2010) The effects of dispersal limitation and topographic heterogeneity on beta diversity and phylobetadiversity in a subtropical forest. Plant Ecology, 209, 237-256.
[3] .Cavender-Bares J, Keen A, Miles B (2006) Phylogenetic structure of floridian plant communities depends on taxonomic and spatial scale. Ecology, 87, S109-S122.
[4] .Chesson PL (2000) Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 31, 343-366.
[5] .Condit R (1995) Research in large, long-term tropical forest plots. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10, 18-22.
[6] .Connell JH (1971) On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In: Dynamics of Populations (eds Boer PJD, Gradwell GR), pp. 298-312. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.
[7] .Faith DP (1992) Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biological Conservation, 61, 1-10.
[8] .Faith DP (1994) Phylogenetic pattern and the quantification of organismal biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 345, 45-58.
[9] .Gotelli NJ, Entsminger GL (2003) Swap algorithms in null model analysis. Ecology, 84, 532-535.
[10] .Grubb PJ (1977) The maintenance of species richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Reviews, 52, 107-145.
[11] .Hubbell SP, Ahumada JA, Condit R, Foster RB (2001) Local neighborhood effects on long-term survival of individual trees in a Neotropical forest. Ecological Research, 16, 859-875.
[12] .Jansen PA, Visser MD, Wright SJ, Rutten G, Muller-Landau HC (2014) Negative density dependence of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a Neotropical palm. Ecology Letters, 17,1111-1120.
[13] .Janzen DH (1970) Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. The American Naturalist, 104, 501-528.
[14] .Kembel SW (2009) Disentangling niche and neutral influences on community assembly: assessing the performance of community phylogenetic structure tests. Ecology Letters, 12, 949-960.
[15] .Kembel SW, Cowan PD, Helmus MR, Cornwell WK, Morlon H, Ackerly DD, Blomberg SP, Webb CO (2010) Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology. Bioinformatics, 26, 1463-1464.
[16] .Kembel SW, Hubbell SP (2006) The phylogenetic structure of a neotropical forest tree community. Ecology, 87, S86-S99.
[17] .Kraft NJB, Cornwell WK, Webb CO (2007) Trait evolution, community assembly, and the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities. The American Naturalist, 170, 271-283.
[18] .Liu XB, Liang M, Etienne RS, Wang Y, Staehelin C, Yu SX (2012) Experimental evidence for a phylogenetic Janzen-Connell effect in a subtropical forest. Ecology Letters, 15, 111-118.
[19] .Losos JB (1996) Phylogenetic perspectives on community ecology. Ecology, 77, 1344-1354.
[20] .Niu HY (牛红玉), Wang ZF (王峥峰), Lian JY (练琚愉), Ye WH (叶万辉), Shen H (沈浩) (2011) New progress in community assembly: community phylogenetic structure combining evolution and ecology. Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 19, 275-283. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[21] .Ricklefs RE (2004) A comprehensive framework for global patterns in biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 7, 1-15.
[22] .Ricklefs RE (1987) Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes. Science, 235, 167-171.
[23] .Song CS (宋朝枢) (1999) Scientific Investigation in the Baotianman Nature Reserve (宝天曼自然保护区科学考察集). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[24] .Stevens PF (2007) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, version 8. .(accessed in October 2013
[25] .Swenson NG, Enquist BJ, Pither J, Thompson J, Zimmerman JK (2006) The problem and promise of scale dependency in community phylogenetics. Ecology, 87, 2418-2424.
[26] .Swenson NG, Enquist BJ, Thompson J, Zimmerman JK (2007) The influence of spatial and size scale on phylogenetic relatedness in tropical forest communities. Ecology, 88, 1770-1780.
[27] .Taylor DR, Aarssen LW, Loehle C (1990) On the relationship between r/K selection and environmental carrying capacity: a new habitat templet for plant life history strategies. Oikos, 58, 239-250.
[28] .Tilman D (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 296pp.
[29] .Wang T (王婷), Ren SY (任思远), Yuan ZL (袁志良), Zhu Y (祝燕), Pan N (潘娜), Li LX (李鹿鑫), Ye YZ (叶永忠) (2014) Effects of density dependence on the spatial patterns of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata trees in deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Baotianman Nature Reserve, central China. Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 22, 449-457. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[30] .Webb CO (2000) Exploring the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities: an example for rain forest trees. The American Naturalist, 156, 145-155.
[31] .Webb CO, Ackerly DD, Kembel SW (2008) Phylocom: software for the analysis of phylogenetic community structure and trait evolution. Bioinformatics, 24, 2098-2100.
[32] .Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ (2002) Phylogenies and community ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 475-505.
[33] .Webb CO, Donoghue MJ (2005) Phylomatic: tree assembly for applied phylogenetics. Molecular Ecology Notes, 5, 181-183.
[34] .Webb CO, Gilbert GS, Donoghue MJ (2006) Phylodiversity-dependent seedling mortality, size structure, and disease in a Bornean rain forest. Ecology, 87, S123-S131.
[35] .Webb CO, Pitman NC (2002) Phylogenetic balance and ecological evenness. Systematic Biology, 51, 898-907.
[36] .Wikström N, Savolainen V, Chase MW (2001) Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,Series B: Biological Sciences, 268, 2211-2220.
[37] .Wright JS (2002) Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia, 130, 1-14.
[38] .Yuan ZL (袁志良), Chen Y (陈云), Wei BL (韦博良), Zhang BQ (张斌强), Wang DY (汪东亚), Ye YZ (叶永忠) (2013) Species habitat correlation analysis in temperate-subtropical ecological transition zone. Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 33, 7819-7826. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] WU Pan,PENG Xi-Qiang,YANG Shu-Ren,GAO Ya-Nan,BAI Feng-Hua,YI Shi-Jie,DU Ning,GUO Wei-Hua. (2019) Spatial distribution patterns and correlation of Tamarix chinensis population in coastal wetlands of Shandong, China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 817-824.
[2] CHAI Yong-Fu,XU Jin-Shi,LIU Hong-Yan,LIU Quan-Ru,ZHENG Cheng-Yang,KANG Mu-Yi,LIANG Cun-Zhu,WANG Ren-Qing,GAO Xian-Ming,ZHANG Feng,SHI Fu-Chen,LIU Xiao,YUE Ming. (2019) Species composition and phylogenetic structure of major shrublands in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 793-805.
[3] Xie Fenglin, Zhou Quan, Shi Hang, Shu Xiao, Zhang Kerong, Li Tao, Feng Shuiyuan, Zhang Quanfa, Dang Haishan. (2019) Species composition and community characteristics of a 25 ha forest dynamics plot in deciduous broad-leaved forest, Qinling Mountains, north-central China . Biodiv Sci, 27(4): 439-448.
[4] LIU Xiao-Ming, YANG Xiao-Fang, WANG Xuan, ZHANG Shou-Ren. (2019) Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Quercus wutaishanica and Acer pictum subsp. mono in a warm-temperate deciduous broad- leaved forest . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(3): 197-207.
[5] HAO Shu-Jun, LI Xiao-Yu, HOU Man-Man, ZHAO Xiu-Hai. (2019) Spatial variations of community functional traits at different successional stages in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains, Northeast China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(3): 208-216.
[6] Hongfei Zhuang,Yinbo Zhang,Wei Wang,Yueheng Ren,Fangzheng Liu,Jinhong Du,Yue Zhou. (2018) Optimized hot spot analysis for probability of species distribution under different spatial scales based on MaxEnt model: Manglietia insignis case . Biodiv Sci, 26(9): 931-940.
[7] Meixiang Gao, Lin Lin, Liang Chang, Xin Sun, Dong Liu, Donghui Wu. (2018) Spatial patterns and assembly rules in soil fauna communities: A review . Biodiv Sci, 26(10): 1034-1050.
[8] Ming-Fei ZHAO, Feng XUE, Yu-Hang WANG, Guo-Yi WANG, Kai-Xiong XING, Mu-Yi KANG, Jing-Lan WANG. (2017) Phylogenetic structure and diversity of herbaceous communities in the conifer forests along an elevational gradient in Luya Mountain, Shanxi, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 41(7): 707-715.
[9] Rong Li,Hang Sun. (2017) Phylofloristics: a case study from Yunnan, China . Biodiv Sci, 25(2): 195-203.
[10] Shanshan Tan, Renren Wang, Xiaoling Gong, Jiayao Cai, Guochun Shen. (2017) Scale dependent effects of species diversity and structural diversity on aboveground biomass in a tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama . Biodiv Sci, 25(10): 1054-1064.
[11] Xiaojing Liu,Siyuan Ren,Luxin Li,Yongzhong Ye,Zhiliang Yuan,Ting Wang. (2016) Detecting density dependence on tree survival in a deciduous broad- leaved forest in Baotianman National Nature Reserve . Biodiv Sci, 24(6): 639-657.
[12] Ting Wang,Siyuan Ren,Zhiliang Yuan,Yan Zhu,Na Pan,Luxin Li,Yongzhong Ye. (2014) Effects of density dependence on the spatial patterns of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata trees in deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Baotianman Nature Reserve, central China . Biodiv Sci, 22(4): 449-457.
[13] WU Yu-Peng, XU Han, LI Yi-De, LUO Tu-Shou, CHEN De-Xiang, LIN Ming-Xian, and YANG Huai. (2014) Associations between species richness and individual densities of varying spatial scales and diameter classifications in tropical montane rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 38(4): 325-333.
[14] Cheng Gao,Liangdong Guo. (2013) Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity . Biodiv Sci, 21(4): 488-498.
[15] LIU Ning, SUN Peng-Sen, LIU Shi-Rong, and SUN Ge. (2013) Determination of spatial scale of response unit for the WASSI-C eco-hydrological model—a case study on the upper Zagunao River watershed of China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 37(2): 132-141.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed