Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 589-595.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14085

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Assessing the Red List Index for vertebrate species in China

Peng Cui1, Haigen Xu1, *(), Jun Wu1, Hui Ding1, Mingchang Cao1, Xiaoqiang Lu1, Fan Yong1, 2, Bing Chen1, 2   

  1. 1 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection/ State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Biosafety, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046
  • Received:2014-04-18 Accepted:2014-09-15 Online:2014-10-09
  • Xu Haigen E-mail:xhg@nies.org

The Red List Index (RLI) is widely recognized as the most authoritative and objective index for assessing the risk of extinction for species. Good results have been achieved in the application of RLI in assessment of the progress of United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals at global scale. In this paper, RLI was applied at national scale based on multi-source data from International Union for Conservation of Nature, BirdLife International, Red List Categories in China Red Data Book (1998) and China Species Red List (2004) to evaluate trends in the status of vertebrate species in China. RLI of amphibians and reptiles were not assessed because of a lack of data. From 1996 to 2008, the RLI of China's mammals decreased, so did that of China's freshwater fishes from 1998 to 2004. The RLI of birds calculated using Equal-steps method decreased slightly between 1988 and 2012; however, when RLI was calculated using Extinction-risk method, the index initially increased slightly and then turned downward. Due to habitat degradation and loss, the threat status of mammals and freshwater fishes has been increasing. Overall, the threat status of birds is increasing though there were some improvements in the status of critically endangered species. We suggest that more taxonomic groups should be assessed using Red List guidelines so that calculation of RLI is possible. And on the basis of RLI, governments and decision makers should make more effective conservation plans for endangered species.

Key words: vertebrate, endangerment species, endangered status, mammals, birds, freshwater fishes

Table 1

Red list categories in China Red Data Book (1998 and China Species Red List (2004)"

中国濒危动物红皮书(1998) China Red Data Book (1998) 中国物种红色名录(2004) China Species Red List (2004)
绝灭 Extinct (EX)
野生绝迹 Extinct in wild (EX) 野外绝灭 Extinct in Wild (EW)
国内绝迹 Extirpated (ET) 地区绝灭 Regionally Extinct (RE)
极危 Critically Endangered (CR)
濒危 Endangered (E) 濒危 Endangered (EN)
易危 Vulnerable (V) 易危 Vulnerable (VU)
稀有 Rare (R) 近危 Near Threatened (NT)
无危 Least Concern (LC)
未定 Indeterminate (I) 数据缺乏 Data Deficient (DD)
不宜评估 Not Applicable (NA)
未予评估 Not Evaluated (NE)

Fig. 1

Cumulative proportion of species undergoing Red List Category changes. (A) Mammals; (B) Birds; (C) Freshwater fishes. Black color presents increased threat, and white color presents decreased threats."

Table 2

Red list categories of mammals, birds and freshwater fishes"

中文名
Chinese name
拉丁名
Latin name
评估起始年份
Start year of period
评估结束年份
End year of period
评估起始年份濒危等级
Category at start of period
评估结束年份濒危等级
Category at end of period
兽类
白头叶猴 Trachypithecus poliocephalus 1996 2008 EN CR
黑长臂猿 Nomascus concolor 1996 2008 EN CR
双峰驼 Camelus bactrianus 1996 2008 EN CR
林麝 Moschus berezovskii 1996 2008 NT EN
黑麝 Moschus fuscus 1996 2008 NT EN
Cuon alpinus 1996 2008 VU EN
蒙古野驴 Equus hemionus 1996 2008 VU EN
伊犁鼠兔 Ochotona iliensis 1996 2008 VU EN
藏羚羊 Pantholops hodgsonii 1996 2008 VU EN
川金丝猴 Rhinopithecus roxellana 1996 2008 VU EN
巨松鼠 Ratufa bicolor 1996 2008 LC NT
鸟类
青头潜鸭 Aythya baeri 1994 2000 VU EN
青头潜鸭 Aythya baeri 2004 2008 EN CR
朱鹮 Nipponia nippon 1994 2000 CR EN
黑脸琵鹭 Platalea minor 1994 2000 CR EN
栗头鳽 Gorsachius goisagi 1988 1994 VU EN
卷羽鹈鹕 Pelecanus crispus 2000 2004 NT VU
黄爪隼 Falco naumanni 1994 2000 VU NT
黄爪隼 Falco naumanni 2000 2004 NT LC
猎隼 Falco cherrug 2000 2004 LC VU
猎隼 Falco cherrug 2008 2012 VU EN
黑兀鹫 Sarcogyps calvus 2000 2004 NT CR
波斑鸨 Chlamydotis macqueenii 1994 2000 LC NT
波斑鸨 Chlamydotis macqueenii 2000 2004 NT VU
白头鹤 Grus monacha 1994 2000 NT VU
白腰杓鹬 Numenius arquata 1994 2000 LC NT
勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 1994 2000 VU EN
勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 2004 2008 EN CR
遗鸥 Larus relictus 1994 2000 NT VU
中亚鸽 Columba eversmanni 1988 1994 NT VU
栗斑腹鹀 Emberiza jankowskii 2000 2004 VU EN
黄胸鹀 Emberiza aureola 1994 2000 NT VU
淡水鱼类
施氏鲟 Acipenser schrencki 1998 2004 VU EN
达氏鲟 Acipenser dabryanus 1998 2004 VU EN
中华鲟 Acipenser sinensis 1998 2004 VU EN
Huso dauricus 1998 2004 VU EN
白鲟 Psephurus gladius 1998 2004 EN CR
黑线 Atrilinea roulei roulei 1998 2004 NT VU
须鳊 Pogobrama barbatula 1998 2004 NT VU
海南 Hainania serrata 1998 2004 NT VU
小似鲴 Xenocyprinoides parvulus 1998 2004 NT VU
裸腹盲鲃 Typhlobarbus nudiventris 1998 2004 NT VU
表2 (续) Table 2 (continued)
中文名
Chinese name
拉丁名
Latin name
评估起始年份
Start year of period
评估结束年份
End year of period
评估起始年份濒危等级
Category at start of period
评估结束年份濒危等级
Category at end of period
红鳍方口鲃 Cosmochilus cardinalis 1998 2004 NT VU
袋唇鱼 Balantiocheilus hekouensis 1998 2004 NT VU
暗色唇鲮 Semilabeo obscurus 1998 2004 NT VU
华缨鱼 Sinocrossocheilus guizhouensis 1998 2004 NT VU
缺须盆唇鱼 Placocheilus cryptonemus 1998 2004 NT VU
长须片唇鮈 Platysmacheilus longibarbatus 1998 2004 NT VU
塔里木裂腹鱼 Schizothorax biddulphi 1998 2004 EN CR
鲃鲤 Puntioplites proctozysron 1998 2004 NT VU
无眼岭鳅 Oreonectes anophthalmus 1998 2004 NT VU
个旧盲高原鳅 Triplophysa gejiuensis 1998 2004 NT VU
保亭近腹吸鳅 Plesiomyzon baotingensis 1998 2004 NT VU
厚唇原吸鳅 Protomyzon pachycheilus 1998 2004 NT VU
湄南缺鳍鲶 Kryptopterus moorei 1998 2004 NT VU
长丝鱼芒 Pangasius sanitwangsei 1998 2004 NT VU
长丝黑鮡 Gagata dolichonema 1998 2004 NT VU
短须粒鲶 Akysis brachybarbatus 1998 2004 NT VU
高体白甲鱼 Onychostoma alticorpus 1998 2004 NT VU

Fig. 2

Red List Index of vertebrates in China (mammals, birds and freshwater fishes). (A) Equal-steps approach; (B) Extinction-risk approach."

[1] .Baillie JE, Collen B, Amin R, Akcakaya HR, Butchart SHM, Brummitt N, Meagher TR, Ram M, Hilton-Taylor C, Mace GM (2008) Toward monitoring global biodiversity. Conservation Letters, 1, 18-26.
[2] .BirdLife International (2013) Data Zone: Species. . (accessed 2013-11-3.
[3] .Bubb PJ, Butchart SHM, Collen B, Dublin H, Kapos V, Pollock C, Stuart SN, Vié J-C (2009) IUCN Red List Index: Guidance for National and Regional Use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
[4] .Butchart SHM, Akçakaya HR, Chanson J, Baillie JE, Collen B, Quader S, Turner WR, Amin R, Stuart SN, Hilton-Taylor C (2007) Improvements to the red list index. PLoS ONE, 2, e140.
[5] .Butchart SHM, Stattersfield AJ, Baillie J, Bennun LA, Stuart SN, Akçakaya HR, Hilton-Taylor C, Mace GM (2005) Using Red List Indices to measure progress towards the 2010 target and beyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360, 255-268.
[6] .Butchart SHM, Stattersfield AJ, Bennun LA, Shutes SM, Akçakaya HR, Baillie JE, Stuart SN, Hilton-Taylor C, Mace GM (2004) Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds. PLoS Biology, 2, e383.
[7] .Green RE, Balmford A, Crane PR, Mace GM, Reynolds JD, Turner RK (2005) A framework for improved monitoring of biodiversity: responses to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Conservation Biology, 19, 56-65.
[8] .Gregory RD, van Strien A (2010) Wild bird indicators: using composite population trends of birds as measures of environmental health. Ornithological Science, 9, 3-22.
[9] .International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (1993) Draft IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
[10] .International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (1994) IUCN Red List Categories. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
[11] .International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2001) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
[12] .International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2003) Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels: Version 3.0. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
[13] .International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2013) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. .
[14] .Jia XG (贾相刚) (1964) Preliminary investigation on the harm of Emberiza aureola in agriculture. Chinese Journal of Zoology(动物学杂志), (1), 17-18. (in Chinese)
[15] .Lewis OT, Senior MJ (2011) Assessing conservation status and trends for the world’s butterflies: the Sampled Red List Index approach. Journal of Insect Conservation, 15, 121-128.
[16] .Loh J, Green RE, Ricketts T, Lamoreux J, Jenkins M, Kapos V, Randers J (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360, 289-295.
[17] .Ministry of Environmental Protection, PRC (中华人民共和国环境保护部) (2010) China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划). China Environmental Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[18] .Nichols JD (2010) The wildlife picture index, monitoring and conservation. Animal Conservation, 13, 344-346.
[19] .Quayle JF, Ramsay LR, Fraser DF (2007) Trend in the status of breeding bird fauna in British Columbia, Canada, based on the IUCN Red List Index method. Conservation Biology, 21, 1241-1247.
[20] .Smith R, Muir RD, Walpole MJ, Balmford A, Leader-Williams N (2003) Governance and the loss of biodiversity. Nature, 426, 67-70.
[21] .Szabo JK, Butchart SH, Possingham HP, Garnett ST (2012) Adapting global biodiversity indicators to the national scale: A Red List Index for Australian birds. Biological Conservation, 148, 61-68.
[22] .United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2012) The Fifth Global Environment Outlook.
[23] .Wang S (汪松) (1998) China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Mammalia (中国濒危动物红皮书: 兽类). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[24] .Wang S (汪松), Xie Y (解焱) (2004) China Species Red List (Vol. I), Red List (中国物种红色名录第一卷: 红色名录). Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[25] .Wang S (汪松), Xie Y(解焱) (2009) China Species Red List (Vol. II), Vertebrates Part 1 and 2 (中国物种红色名录(第二卷: 脊椎动物上册、下册)). Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[26] .Xu HG, Tang XP, Liu JY, Ding H, Wu J, Zhang M, Yang QW, Cai L, Zhao HJ, Liu Y (2009) China's progress toward the significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss. BioScience, 59, 843-852.
[27] .Yue PQ (乐佩琦), Chen YY (陈宜瑜) (1998) China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Pisces (中国濒危动物红皮书: 鱼类). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[28] .Zhao EM (赵尔宓) (1998) China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Amphibia and Reptilia (中国濒危动物红皮书: 两栖类和爬行类). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[29] .Zheng GM (郑光美), Wang QS (王岐山) (1998) China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Aves (中国濒危动物红皮书: 鸟类). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[1] . (2020) Questions and countermeasures in the surveillance and research of wildlife epidemics based on mammals in China . Biodiv Sci, 28(5): 0-0.
[2] Zhang Mingming,Yang Zhaohui,Wang Cheng,Wang Jiaojiao,Hu Canshi,Lei Xiaoping,Shi Lei,Su Haijun,Li Jiaqi. (2019) Camera-trapping survey on mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 813-818.
[3] Xiao Zhishu,Chen Lijun,Song Xiangjin,Shu Zufei,Xiao Ronggao,Huang Xiaoqun. (2019) Species inventory and assessment of large- and medium-size mammals and pheasants using camera trapping in the Chebaling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province . Biodiv Sci, 27(3): 237-242.
[4] Zhigang Jiang, Shaoying Liu, Yi Wu, Xuelong Jiang, Kaiya Zhou. (2017) China’s mammal diversity (2nd edition) . Biodiv Sci, 25(8): 886-895.
[5] Xiaojing Song, Wenqiao Tang, Ya Zhang. (2017) Freshwater fish fauna and zoogeographical divisions in the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains of eastern China . Biodiv Sci, 25(12): 1331-1338.
[6] Shuyi Zhu, Fei Duan, Sheng Li. (2017) Promoting diversity inventory and monitoring of birds through the camera-trapping network in China: status, challenges and future outlook . Biodiv Sci, 25(10): 1114-1122.
[7] Zhigang Jiang,Lili Li,Zhenhua Luo,Songhua Tang,Chunwang Li,Huijian Hu,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Zuojian Feng,Lei Cai,Chunxin Zang,Yan Zeng,Zhibin Meng,Xiaoge Ping,Hongxia Fang. (2016) Evaluating the status of China’s mammals and analyzing their causes of endangerment through the red list assessment . Biodiv Sci, 24(5): 552-567.
[8] Yanyun Zhang,Zhengwang Zhang,Lu Dong,Ping Ding,Changqing Ding,Zhijun Ma,Guangmei Zheng. (2016) Assessment of red list of birds in China . Biodiv Sci, 24(5): 568-577.
[9] Minyi Liang,Jianghong Ran,Siqi Liang,Yongjie Wu,Xiang Yu. (2016) Diversity and migration routes of raptors in Sichuan Province . Biodiv Sci, 24(12): 1408-1413.
[10] Yiru Wu,Xingfeng Si,Chuanwu Chen,Di Zeng,Yuhao Zhao,Jiaqi Li,Ping Ding. (2016) Effects of dispersal abilities on community dynamics of breeding birds on the land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China . Biodiv Sci, 24(10): 1135-1145.
[11] Mengjie Bi,Mengwei Shen,Kexin Zhou,Lingfeng Mao,Shengbin Chen,Peihao Peng. (2015) Geographical variance of ladybird morphology and environmental correlates in China . Biodiv Sci, 23(6): 775-783.
[12] Shengwang Pan, Mingcheng Hu, Jinghong Luo, Yunxiao Wu. (2015) Effects of rehabilitation species on slope vegetation diversity and soil and water conservation . Biodiv Sci, 23(3): 341-350.
[13] Zhigang Jiang,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Zuojian Feng,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Zhenhua Luo,Chunwang Li. (2015) China’s mammalian diversity . Biodiv Sci, 23(3): 351-364.
[14] Aichun Xu,Xingfeng Si,Yanping Wang,Ping Ding. (2014) Camera traps and the minimum trapping effort for ground-dwelling mammals in fragmented habitats in the Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province . Biodiv Sci, 22(6): 764-772.
[15] Caiyun Zhao,Xiaoyan Liu,Jiade Bai,Fengchun Lü,Junsheng Li. (2014) Impact of Spartina alterniflora on benthic macro-invertebrates communities on mangrove wetland in Xicungang Estuary, Guangxi . Biodiv Sci, 22(5): 630-639.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed