Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 532-538.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13200

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Changes in the marine trophic index of Chinese marine area

Jianguo Du1, Guanqiong Ye2, Bin Chen1, *(), Xinqing Zheng1   

  1. 1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China
    2 .Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
  • Received:2013-09-04 Accepted:2014-07-16 Online:2014-07-24
  • Chen Bin E-mail:chenbin@tio.org.cn

Using the fishery catches and landings data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fishery Statistics (1950 to 2011) for 129 marine species, we analyzed changes in the trophic index of captured species in China (including 4 sea areas: Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau). The results showed the following: the marine trophic index remained stable from 1950 to 1974, fluctuating around 3.45, then declined to 3.35 during the period 1975-1978, declined again sharply to 3.25 between 1982 and 1987, remained stable in the following 10 years, and then increased gradually to 3.34 from 1997 to 2011. Comparing to global marine trophic index, China’s marine trophic index was higher than the global level before 1984, but became lower after 1984. Comparing the contributions of the 4 main biological groups used in the calculation of the index showed that fish species contributed the mostly at 73.1-85.8%, crustaceans contributed 9.2-15.5%, molluscs contributed 3.3-11.6%, and other invertebrates contributed less than 1.8%. The general decline we observed in China’s marine trophic index is associated with shifts in fishery catches from benthic fishes with a long lives and high trophic levels, to invertebrates and pelagic fishes with short lives and low trophic levels. Increasing Chinese marine trophic index from 1997 to 2011 may be attributed to a series of fishery management countermeasures, including new fishing permits regulations, closed fishing seasons, “zero and negative growth plans” for marine fishery catches and landings, artificial breeding and stocking of juveniles fishes, and marine protected areas for spawning and feeding grounds.

Key words: Chinese marine area, marine biodiversity, marine trophic index, marine food web

Fig. 1

Changes of marine trophic index in different sea areas of China from 1950 to 2011"

Fig. 2

Relationship of marine trophic index and the fishery catches (×106 tons) in China"

Fig. 3

The contributions of four marine biological groups to the marine trophic index in China"

Table 1

Comparisons of marine trophic index in different sea areas and times in China (data in brackets are fish trophic indices)"

年份 Year 文献来源 Reference
1959 1982-
1983
1985-
1986
1992-
1993
1998-
1999
2000-
2001
2008-
2010
渤海 Bohai Sea 4.06 3.70 - 3.51 3.41 - - 张波和唐启升, 2004
黄海 Yellow Sea - - 3.66 - - 3.40 - 张波和唐启升, 2004
东海 East China Sea - - - - - 3.68 - 张波和唐启升, 2004
闽东 East Fujian - - - - 3.57 - - 李雪丁和卢振彬, 2008
闽中 Middle Fujian - - - - 3.55 - - 李雪丁和卢振彬, 2008
闽南 South Fujian - - - - 3.54 - - 李雪丁和卢振彬, 2008
泉州湾 Quanzhou Bay - 3.79 3.79 - 3.58 3.58 3.54 杜建国等, 2010
九龙江口 Jiulongjiang Estuary - 3.82 3.82 - 3.58 3.58 3.55 杜建国等, 2012
全国 China 3.46
(3.65)
3.44
(3.59)
3.32
(3.58)
3.26
(3.51)
3.22
(3.47)
3.23
(3.48)
3.34
(3.53)

Table S1

The species numbers used in the calculation for marine trophic index in four sea areas of China http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2013-200-1.pdf"

年份
Year
大陆物种数
Specie number
in Mainland
台湾物种数
Specie number
in Taiwan
香港物种数
Specie number in Hong Kong
澳门物种数
Specie number in Macau
年份
Year
大陆物种数
Specie number
in Mainland
台湾物种数
Specie number
in Taiwan
香港物种数
Specie number in Hong Kong
澳门物种数
Specie number in Macau
1950 9 31 22 2 1982 18 71 30 4
1951 9 32 22 2 1983 18 73 30 4
1952 9 34 22 2 1984 18 71 30 4
1953 9 34 23 2 1985 18 72 30 4
1954 9 35 24 2 1986 19 74 30 4
1955 9 36 24 2 1987 21 73 31 4
1956 9 44 22 2 1988 21 72 31 4
1957 9 44 24 2 1989 21 91 31 4
1958 9 58 22 2 1990 27 92 31 4
1959 9 58 22 2 1991 27 90 32 4
1960 9 57 22 2 1992 27 91 32 4
1961 9 59 22 2 1993 27 93 30 4
1962 9 61 23 2 1994 27 93 30 4
1963 9 60 23 2 1995 31 92 31 4
1964 9 61 25 2 1996 30 90 30 4
1965 9 60 24 2 1997 30 90 30 4
1966 9 63 24 2 1998 31 91 30 4
1967 9 65 27 2 1999 31 89 29 4
1968 9 63 29 2 2000 31 88 29 4
1969 9 65 29 2 2001 36 89 29 4
1970 14 69 29 2 2002 37 85 29 4
1971 13 73 29 2 2003 49 90 29 4
1972 14 71 29 2 2004 43 84 29 4
1973 11 71 29 4 2005 43 83 29 4
1974 10 70 29 4 2006 43 85 29 4
1975 10 71 29 4 2007 43 84 29 4
1976 12 70 29 4 2008 42 84 29 4
1977 13 71 30 4 2009 42 85 29 4
1978 17 73 30 4 2010 41 81 29 4
1979 18 72 30 4 2011 41 85 29 4
1980 18 75 30 4 总计 51 101 32 4
1981 18 73 30 4 Total
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