Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 334-342.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09030

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Changes in soil microbial properties and nematode assemblage over time during rice cultivation

Yudi Liu1, Xiaoyun Chen1, Manqiang Liu1, *(), Jiangtao Qin2, Huixin Li1, Feng Hu1   

  1. 1 Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
    2 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
  • Received:2013-01-30 Accepted:2013-03-28 Online:2013-06-05
  • Liu Manqiang E-mail:liumq@njau.edu.cn

The properties of red soil may change over time when paddy fields are developed on what was previously dry land. The effect of rice cultivation duration on soil invertebrates is unknown. Five chronosequences of rice cultivation (1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years) were selected to investigate the temporal changes of soil microbiological properties and nematode assemblages. The results showed that soil microbial properties (microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, basal respiration), nutrient availability (mineral N and P), nematode abundance and richness of nematode genera generally increased with the duration of rice cultivation. Notably, most soil measurements peaked after 50 years of cultivation (P<0.05) and decreased slightly after 100 years. As the period of rice cultivation increased, the proportion of nematode herbivores rose significantly (P< 0.05), while that of predators/omnivores slightly declined. Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR) also increased with cultivation duration (P< 0.05), indicating that the bacterial energy channel was more dominant in old rice fields when compared to those cultivated for a shorter period. Other ecological indices of nematode assemblage such as maturity index and structure index, did not reveal consistent trends with an increased period of rice cultivation. In summary, a change in land use from dry land to paddy fields promotes soil microbial properties and nematode assemblages in the first few decades, which then become stable after 50 years of cultivation.

Key words: rice paddy, cultivation duration, soil microbiolgical property, nematode assemblage

Fig. 1

Effect of different rice cultivation duration on soil microbial biomass C (A), microbial biomass N (B), microbial biomass P (C), basal respiration (D), microbial metabolic quotient (E), mineral N (F), available P (G) and nematode abundance (H) (Different small letters at each duration indicated significant differences, P<0.05)"

Table 1

Effects of different rice cultivation durations on the proportion of soil individual nematode taxa (Mean±SE, percentage)"

食性
Feeding habit
属名
Genera
缩写
Abbr.
c-p
c-p value
耕作年限 Cultivation duration
1 yr 10 yr 20 yr 50 yr 100 yr
植食者 短体属 Pratylenchus Prat. 3 4.3 ± 0.6 0.0 0.0 1.8 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.5
Herbivor 矮化属 Tylenchorhynchus Tyl. 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 ± 1.1 0.0
螺旋属 Helicotylenchus Heli. 3 4.8 ± 0.6 0.0 1.5 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 0.6 0.0
潜根属 Hirschmanniella Hirs. 3 12.7 ± 1.7 25.9 ± 3.0 32.2 ± 0.9 28.1 ± 6.3 34.3 ± 4.6
盘旋属 Rotylenchus Roty. 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 ± 1.5 0.0
丝尾属 Oxydirus Oxyd. 5 1.9 ± 0.6 0.0 0.5 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.3
食细菌者 小杆属 Rhabditis Rhab. 1 0.0 1.3 ± 0.6 0.0 1.3 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 0.3
Bacterivor 中杆属 Mesorhabditis Mesr. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 ± 0.8
原杆属 Protorhaditis Prot. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.3
头叶属 Cephalobus Ceph. 2 13.2 ± 1.1 22.1 ± 1.4 20.2 ± 0.9 25.0 ± 3.1 15.5 ± 2.2
鹿角唇属 Cervidellus Cerv. 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3 0.0
真头叶属 Eucephalobus Euce. 2 3.2 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.8 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3 0.0
绕线属 Plectus Ple. 2 2.4 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 0.7 12.4 ± 4.4
连胃属 Chronogaster Chr. 2 2.0 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.4 3.9 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.5
棱咽属 Prismatolaimus Pris. 2 0.0 0.0 0.5 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.6 0.0
单宫属 Monhystera Monh. 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3
无咽属 Alaimus Alai. 4 2.0 ± 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
食真菌者 滑刃属 Aphelenchoides Aphe. 2 2.9 ± 0.6 10.2 ± 1.2 6.8 ± 1.3 0.3 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.3
Fungivor 真滑刃属 Aphelenchus Aph. 2 0.0 1.8 ± 1.1 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.3
丝尾垫刃属 Filenchus Fil. 2 7.6 ± 1.0 9.6 ± 1.5 18.9 ± 0.4 8.5 ± 3.0 3.9 ± 1.0
茎属 Ditylenchus Dity. 2 3.1 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.9 0.0 4.4 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 1.0
捕食/杂食者 三孔属 Tripyla Trip. 3 0.8 ± 0.8 1.6 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 0.3 2.7 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.7
Omnivores/predator 托布利属 Tobrilus Tobr. 3 0.0 2.7 ± 0.3 2.6 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.8 6.9 ± 3.5
真矛线属 Eudorylaimus Eudo. 4 2.3 ± 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 ± 0.3 0.0
中矛线属 Mesodorylaimus Meso. 4 24.1 ± 2.8 4.3 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 1.3 10.1 ± 4.3
矛线属 Dorylaimus Dor. 4 12.1 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 1.1 0.3 ± 0.3
拱唇属 Labronema Labr. 4 0.0 0.0 0.8 ± 0.5 0.0 0.0
基齿属 Iotonchus Ioto. 4 0.0 1.4 ± 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0
拟桑尼属 Thorneella Tho. 4 0.0 2.4 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.5 0.0
拟矛线属 Dorylaimoides Dory. 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 ± 0.4 0.0 0.0
孔咽属 Aporcelaimus Apor. 5 0.0 2.4 ± 0.7 0.0 0.0 2.3 ± 0.8
前矛线属 Prodorylaimus Prod. 5 0.5 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 1.1 0.0 2.1 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 1.2
线虫属数
Total nematode taxa
17 19 16 25 20

Table 2

Effects of different rice cultivation durations on trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematode assemblage (Mean ± SE, different small letters at each duration indicated significant differences, P<0.05)"

耕作年限
Cultivation
duration
各营养类群占总体的百分比% 成熟度指数 结构指数 通道指数
植食者
PP
食细菌者
BF
食真菌者
FF
捕食/杂食者
OP
Maturity
index
Structure
index
Nematode
channel ratio
1 yr 23.8 ± 1.5c 22.8 ± 1.4b 13.6 ± 2.2b 39.8 ± 2.4a 2.2 ± 0.1a 85.5 ± 1.1a 0.6 ± 0.1bc
10 yr 25.9 ± 3.0bc 29.6 ± 2.9ab 25.2 ± 3.7a 19.4 ± 2.9bc 1.6 ± 0.1b 63.2 ± 4.3bc 0.5 ± 0.1c
20 yr 34.3 ± 1.6ab 27.2 ± 0.7ab 25.7 ± 1.5a 12.8 ± 0.8c 1.1 ± 0.0d 55.2 ± 1.1c 0.5 ± 0.0c
50 yr 38.9 ± 4.1a 33.6 ± 3.4a 13.4 ± 3.2b 14.2 ± 1.5bc 1.3 ± 0.1cd 59.4 ± 0.6bc 0.7 ± 0.1ab
100 yr 38.6 ± 3.8a 30.1 ± 4.0ab 7.5 ± 1.3b 23.8 ± 5.6b 1.6 ± 0.2bc 69.9 ± 7.8b 0.8 ± 0.0a

Fig. 2

Redundancy analysis (RDA) diagram of the relation between soil nematode community composition and environmental factors. ▲ Rice cultivation duration; → Environmental factors; ---→ Nematode genus; AP, Available P; BR, Basal respiration; MBC, Microbial biomass C; MBN, Microbial biomass N; MBP, Microbial biomass P; MN, Mineral N; qCO2, Microbial metabolic quotient; The full name of nematode genus can be seen in Table 1."

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