Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (11): 1196-1204.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019146

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

One or more species? GBS sequencing and morphological traits evidence reveal species diversification of Sphaeropteris brunoniana in China

Morigengaowa 1, 2, Hui Shang1, Baodong Liu2, Ming Kang3, Yuehong Yan1, *()   

  1. 1 Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden; Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201602
    2 Key Laboratory of Plant Biology, College of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    3 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2019-04-29 Accepted:2019-06-29 Online:2020-01-17
  • Yan Yuehong

Species are not static, but in the process of continuous differentiation and evolution. In this context, reproductive isolation is considered the key to most speciation events. However, species that may be only partially reproductively isolated may disturb our understanding of a species, as stated by ‘The integrative species concept’. In the Flora of China, Chinese Sphaeropteris contains two species, S. brunoniana and S. lepifera. S. brunoniana is thought to be the same species as a Hainan native, S. hainanensis, however, S. hainanensis seems to have differentiated morphologically. This study further explores the genetic relationship between S. brunoniana and its related species by collecting 21 samples from 9 populations for GBS reduced-representation genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. Using both genetic and morphological data, our results indicate that S. hainanensis differs genetically from S. brunoniana, but is also morphologically distinct based on leaf characteristics and spore ornamentation. Although the reproductive isolation of the two populations is weak, hybrids are formed in the coastal areas of Guangxi and leaves mimic intermediate morphology between parents. Therefore, our results suggest that S. hainanensis is in the process of speciation due to geographic isolation and suggests to restore its species status. S. brunoniana × hainanensis which the sample from Guangxi should be considered an independent natural hybrid taxon.

Key words: Sphaeropteris, S. hainanensis, speciation, natural hybridization, GBS, SNP

Table 1

Sample details of Sphaeropteris"

类群 Taxon 采样地点 Location 样本数量及采集号 Sample size and voucher no.
白桫椤 S. brunoniana 广西东兴 Dongxing, Guangxi 3: CFH09001403, CFH09001405, CFH09001406
白桫椤 S. brunoniana 海南琼中 Qiongzhong, Hainan 2: SG2100, SG2103
白桫椤 S. brunoniana 海南五指山 Wuzhishan, Hainan 6: SG2005, SG2014, SG2021, SG2030, SG2050, SG2054
白桫椤 S. brunoniana 云南河口 Hekou, Yunnan 3: CFH09000322, CFH09000324, CFH09000325
白桫椤 S. brunoniana 云南麻栗坡 Malipo, Yunnan 1: YN384
白桫椤 S. brunoniana 云南屏边 Pingbian, Yunnan 2: CFH09000301, ZXL05870
笔筒树 S. lepifera 福建福州 Fuzhou, Fujian 1: GBJ02954
笔筒树 S. lepifera 福建平潭 Pingtan, Fujian 1: GBJ04090
笔筒树 S. lepifera 台湾兰屿 Lanyu, Taiwan 2: ZXL06026, ZXL09919

Fig. 1

The nuclear genes (A) and chloroplast genes (B) phylogenetic tree of Sphaeropteris based on Bayes and Maximum likelihood method. Numbers above the branches are posterior probability (PP ≥ 0.95) from the BI analysis, and numbers under the branches are bootstrap percentages (BS ≥ 50%) of maximum likelihood analysis. The sample information is shown in Table 1."

Fig. 2

Neighbor-Net network of Sphaeropteris based on nuclear SNPs"

Fig. 3

Principal component analysis of Sphaeropteris based on SNPs. Each sample is represented by a point."

Fig. 4

The optimal K is obtained by the statistical method of ΔK"

Fig. 5

Structure of Sphaeropteris. Each sample is represented by a histogram, which is partitioned into different colors. Each color represents a genetic cluster."

Fig. 6

The significant difference analysis in leaf traits of Sphaeropteris"

Fig. 7

The spore morphology of Sphaeropteris. A, Sphaeropteris lepifera; B-D, Sphaeropteris brunoniana. B, Sample from Yunnan; C, Sample from Guangxi; D, Sample from Hainan, adopted from Wang & Dai (2010)."

Table 2

Spore morphological characteristics of Sphaeropteris"

S. lepifera
白桫椤 S. brunoniana
云南 Yunnan 广西 Guangxi 海南 Hainan
孢子大小 Spore size 34 μm × 46 μm 31 μm × 47 μm 35 μm × 45 μm 37 μm × 45 μm
Polar view
三角形, 三边内凹
Triangle, inset edge
三角形, 三边内凹
Triangle, inset edge
三角形, 三边直
Triangle, straight edge
三角形, 三边直
Triangle, straight edge
Equatorial view
Sector or approximate semicircle
Sector or approximate semicircle
颗粒状, 细小
Granulate, small
颗粒状, 粗大
Granulate, thick
颗粒状, 细小
Granulate, small
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