Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 159-167.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018317

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Variation in style length and the effect on reproductive success in Chinese plums (Armeniaca mume)

Wang Xiaoyue1, 2, 3, Zhu Xinxin3, Yang Juan3, Liu Yunjing3, Tang Xiaoxin1, 2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration on Biodiversity Conservation in Karst Mountainous Areas of Southwestern China, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550025
    2 Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Developmental Regulation, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550025
    3 School of Life Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550025
  • Received:2018-11-27 Accepted:2018-03-05 Online:2019-04-08
  • Tang Xiaoxin E-mail:txxfull@163.com

Style length might affect gametophyte competition during pollen germination and pollen tube elongation if pollen quality and quantity deposited on stigmas differs with style length. However, it is unknown whether pollen donors from flowers with different style lengths affect sexual reproduction. Field observation noted that style length of Armeniaca mume varied within individuals including those with long-style type, short-style type and male-flower type. Corolla diameters, pistil length, style length, pollen number and pollen volume of long-style type were significantly higher than those of short-style type. Flower longevity and female phase of long-style type were significantly longer than those of short-style type. Pollen germination rates among long-style, short-style and male-flower types were not significantly different. Pollen tube length of the male-flower type was significantly longer than that of long-style and short-style types. Pollen germination rates and pollen tube length of long-style type as pollen recipient were significantly higher than those of short-style type as pollen recipient. Fruit sets did not significantly differ between flowers pollinated by pollen from long-style, short-style and male-flower types with open-pollinated individuals. Fruit sets of long-style type as pollen recipient were significantly higher than those of short-style type as pollen recipient.

Key words: Armeniaca mume, variation in style length, intraplant floral variation, pollen germination rates, pollen tube length, fruit set, pollen siring success

Fig. 1

Flowers of Armeniaca mume showing different style lengths. (A) Buds of long-style type and short-style type (different type can be distinguished during the bud phase); (B) Long-style type; (C) Short-style type; (D) Male-flower type. L, Long-style type; S, Short-style type; M, Male-flower type."

Table 1

Comparisons of floral traits (mean ± SE) among long-style, short-style and male-flower types within individuals of Armeniaca mume using generalized linear model (GLM). Floral traits of long-style type significantly larger than those of short-style and male-flower types are in bold. The sample size of floral characters and floral phase was 30 and 20, respectively. Different letters indicate significant differences in flower traits among three types in the same row."

花部特征
Flower character
长柱型
Long-style type
短柱型
Short-style type
雄花型
Male-flower type
Wald χ2 df
P
花萼长 Spur length (mm) 5.30 ± 0.09a 5.38 ± 0.08a 4.99 ± 0.10b 8.970 2 0.011
花萼宽 Spur width (mm) 3.62 ± 0.05a 3.78 ± 0.07a 3.76 ± 0.12a 2.755 2 0.252
花冠直径 Corolla diameter (mm) 24.42 ± 0.44a 23.43 ± 0.23b 21.64 ± 0.41c 27.656 2 < 0.001
花瓣长 Petal length (mm) 10.44 ± 0.18a 10.03 ± 0.16a 9.17 ± 0.18b 22.160 2 < 0.001
花瓣宽 Petal width (mm) 9.70 ± 0.20a 9.31 ± 0.16a 8.05 ± 0.25b 32.449 2 < 0.001
雄蕊数 Stamen Number 53.71 ± 0.71b 53.56 ± 0.79b 56.93 ± 1.10a 8.460 2 0.015
雄蕊长 Stamen length (mm) 9.25 ± 0.21b 10.39 ± 0.18a 8.82 ± 0.22b 33.193 2 < 0.001
花药长 Anther length (mm) 1.01 ± 0.02a 1.02 ± 0.01a 1.01 ± 0.02a 0.500 2 0.779
雌蕊长 Pistil length (mm) 14.46 ± 0.20a 12.34 ± 0.21b 3.42 ± 0.16c 8.460 2 0.015
花柱长 Style length (mm) 12.20 ± 0.19a 10.18 ± 0.18b / 58.394 1 < 0.001
花粉数 Pollen Number 37,522.22 ± 1,305.85a 30,386.67 ± 1,412.62b 32,000.00 ± 2,003.29b 15.133 2 0.001
花粉体积 Pollen volume (mm3) 1,213.07 ± 28.87a 1,102.47 ± 31.08b 1,067.13 ± 49.45b 10.226 2 0.006
胚珠数 Ovule Number 2.00 ± 0.00a 2.00 ± 0.00a 0.90 ± 0.35b 46.620 2 < 0.001
单花期 Flower longevity (days) 10.43 ± 0.24a 9.29 ± 0.56b 10.70 ± 0.30a 6.620 2 0.037
雄花期 Male phase (days) 5.46 ± 0.35a 5.23 ± 0.52a / 0.140 1 0.079
雌花期 Female phase (days) 4.96 ± 0.30a 4.06 ± 0.30b / 4.670 1 0.031

Table 2

Effect of pollination treatments (long-style, short-style and male-flower types) and pollen recipient type (long-style vs short-style), and their interaction on pollen germination rates and pollen tube length in Armeniaca mume (generalized linear model)"

变量 Source of variation Wald χ2 df P
萌发率 Germination rates
授粉处理 Pollination treatments 1.010 2 0.604
花粉受体 Pollen recipient type 4.110 1 0.043
交互作用 Interaction 3.860 2 0.145
花粉管长度 Pollen tube length
授粉处理 Pollination treatments 147.178 2 < 0.001
花粉受体 Pollen recipient type 26.615 1 < 0.001
交互作用 Interaction 19.526 2 < 0.001

Fig. 2

Comparisons of in vivo pollen germination rates (A) and pollen tube length (mean ± SE) (B) of pollen donors from long-style, short-style and male-flower types, with the long- style and short-style types in Armeniaca mume as pollen recipients. The same letters indicate no significant difference within the flower type. Numbers of sample size are shown in the bars."

Table 3

Effect of pollination treatments (control, long-style type, short-style type, male-flower type) and pollen recipient type (long-style vs short-style), and their interaction on fruit set of Armeniaca mume (generalized linear model)"

变量 Source of variation Wald χ2 df P
坐果率 Fruit set
授粉处理 Pollination treatments 0.704 3 0.872
花粉受体 Pollen recipient type 3.914 1 0.048
交互作用 Interaction 5.920 3 0.116

Fig. 3

Comparison of fruit set between pollen donors from long-style, short-style and male-flower types, with the long-style and short-style types in Armeniaca mume as pollen recipients. Bars with the same letters are not significantly different. Numbers of sample size are shown in the bars."

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