Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 168-176.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018224

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Comparison of taxonomic morphological characteristics between Rorippa indica and R. dubia

Tu Weifeng1, Zhang Yang2, 3, *(), Tang Jie2, 3, Tu Yuqin2, 3, Xin Jiajia2, 3, Ji Hongli4, Zhang Nanfeng2, Zhang Tao2   

  1. 1 Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchang 330200
    2 Crops Research Institute of Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchang 330200
    3 Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Oil Crops Biology, Nanchang 330200
    4 Lushan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiujiang, Jiangxi 332900
  • Received:2018-08-13 Accepted:2019-01-02 Online:2019-04-16
  • Zhang Yang E-mail:pengzhang_123@163.com

The taxonomic status of Rorippa indica and R. dubia remains controversial. In order to clarify the taxonomic relationship between them, the differences of taxonomic characteristics and cytogenetic between both of them were systematically investigated by means of morphological index measurement, DNA relative content detection, somatic chromosome observation and genetic distance analysis based on SSR markers. Our results showed that R. indica (2n = 48) was hexaploid and R. dubia (2n = 32) was tetraploid. Consistently, the DNA relative content of the former was about 150, which was 1.5 times that of the latter. Genetic distance analysis based on 45 SSR markers indicated sister relationships between R. indica and R. dubia. However, they could be divided into two species when the threshold of genetic distance was set as 0.23, which was the genetic distance between two well separated species, R. globosa and R. sylvestris. Meanwhile, the two taxa could be readily distinguished by pod length and seed density. In addition, obvious reproductive barriers were observed between them. The seed setting rates of self-pollinated R. indica and R. dubia were 97.73% and 95.65%, respectively, while that of R. indica cross-fertilized by the pollens from R. dubia was 0. In comparison, the seed setting rate of R. dubia cross-fertilized by the pollen from R. indica were 47.06%, but the germination rate of these seeds was zero. In conclusion, R. indica and R. dubia should be regarded as two species

Key words: Rorippa indica, Rorippa dubia, evolution, cytogenetics, classification

Table 1

Habitat and geographic information of Rorippa indica, R. dubia, R. globosa and R. sylvestris"

居群代号
Population code
地点 Locality 生境 Habitat 经纬度
Location
海拔
Altitude (m)
印度蔊菜居群 Rorippa indica
Ri-1
江西省大余县池江镇
Chijiang Town, Dayu, Jiangxi
田埂和排水渠两侧草丛附近
Near the balk and offtake of the brushwood
25.49° N;
114.55° E
174
Ri-2 江西省大余县河洞乡
Hedong Town, Dayu, Jiangxi
空旷的沙土地, 植被较少
Open sandy land with less vegetation
25.31° N;
114.08° E
372
Ri-3
江西省永修县大屋村
Dawu Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
溪流旁的碎石滩周围
Near the rocky beach of streams
29.17° N;
115.57° E
32
Ri-4
江西省安福县岭上村
Lingshang Village, Anfu, Jiangxi
废旧房屋墙角碎石缝隙中
Narrow gaps in the rubble near the corner of old houses
27.20° N;
114.58° E
89
Ri-5
江西省永修县内江村
Neijiang Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
空旷的沙土地, 植被较少
Open sandy land with less vegetation
29.04° N;
115.81o E
56
Ri-6
江西省农业科学院
Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural
Sciences, Nanchang, Jiangxi
有房屋遮阴, 生于排水沟周围
Around the drain and under the eaves
28.56° N;
115.94o E
45
无瓣蔊菜居群 R. dubia
Rd-1
江西省永修县陈司村
Chensi Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
废旧房屋墙角碎石缝隙中
Narrow gaps in the rubble near the corner of old houses
29.31° N;
115.44° E
79
Rd-2
江西省永修县南坑村
Nankeng Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
有树木遮阴, 路旁排水沟两侧
Around the drain and under the trees
29.14° N;
115.53° E
203
Rd-3
江西省大余县樟斗镇
Zhangdou Town, Dayu, Jiangxi
冬闲的水稻田内
In the winter leisure farmland
25.58° N;
114.47° E
296
Rd-4
江西省永修县河桥村
Heqiao Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
农家菜园内, 土壤肥沃
In the garden with fertile soil
29.29° N;
115.56° E
69
球果蔊菜居群 R. globosa
Rg-1
江西省永修县吴城村
Wucheng Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
空旷的沙土地, 植被较少
Open sandy land with less vegetation
29.18° N;
116.00° E
28
Rg-2
江西省永修县丁山村
Dingshan Village, Yongxiu, Jiangxi
废旧房屋墙角碎石缝隙中
Narrow gaps in the rubble near the corner of old houses
29.14° N;
115.98° E
33
欧亚蔊菜居群 R. sylvestris
Rs-1
江西省西宁市城北区
Chengbei District, Xining, Qinghai
空旷的沙土地, 植被较少
Open sandy land with less vegetation
36.73° N;
101.75° E
2,206
Rs-2
江西省西宁市城北区
Chengbei District, Xining, Qinghai
空旷的沙土地, 植被较少
Open sandy land with less vegetation
36.76° N;
101.73° E
2,268

Fig. 1

Relative content of DNA in leaves of Rorippa indica and R. dubia. (a) R. indica Ri-2; (b) R. dubia Rd-4; (c) R. indica Ri-6; (d) R. dubia Rd-1; (e) R. indica Ri-1; (f) R. dubia Rd-2; (g) R. indica Ri-3; h, R. dubia Rd-3. Population codes see Table 1."

Fig. 2

Observation of metaphase division phase from the ovary parietal cells of Rorippa indica and Rorippa dubia. (a) R. indica Ri-2; (b) R. dubia Rd-4; (c) R. indica Ri-6; (d) R. dubia Rd-1; (e) R. indica Ri-1; (f) R. dubia Rd-2; (g) R. indica Ri-3; (h) R. dubia Rd-3. Population codes see Table 1."

Fig. 3

Genetic distance of Rorippa indica, R. dubia, and R. globosaand R. sylvestris. Population codes see Table 1."

Table 2

Effects of drought treatments on plant morphology of Rorippa indica and R. dubia"

处理
Treatment
每花花瓣数
Petal number
per flower
种子列数
Seed column
角果长度
Pod length (mm)
每角果种子数
Number of seeds
per pod
结籽密度
(粒/cm)
Seed density
(No./cm)
印度蔊菜盆栽对照处理 Control for R. indica 3.94 ± 0.24 d 2 16.01 ± 1.17 b 82.00 ± 7.20 c 5.12 ± 0.15 d
印度蔊菜盆栽干旱处理 Drought stress for R. indica 3.06 ± 1.24 c 2 10.19 ± 3.50 a 43.92 ± 23.76 a 4.07 ± 1.15 c
印度蔊菜自然条件下生长 Natural condition for R. indica 3.89 ± 0.32 d 2 16.98 ± 1.06 b 93.70 ± 3.92 c 5.45 ± 0.33 d
无瓣蔊菜盆栽对照处理 Control for R. dubia 0.43 ± 0.84 a 1 29.51 ± 5.21 d 65.15 ± 16.13 b 2.20 ± 0.31 a
无瓣蔊菜盆栽干旱处理 Drought stress for R. dubia 1.35 ± 1.11 b 1 20.20 ± 2.87 c 68.71 ± 10.38 b 3.41 ± 0.38 b
无瓣蔊菜自然条件下生长 Natural condition for R. dubia 0.75 ± 1.20 a 1 27.30 ± 5.24 d 66.17 ± 18.92 b 2.39 ± 0.38 a

Fig. 4

Distribution characteristics of seed density and pod length in populations of Rorippa indica and R. dubia"

Table 3

Cross pollination experiment of Rorippa indica and R. dubia"

处理
Treatment
授粉花朵数
No. of
pollinated
flowers
结实角果数
No. of
developed
pods
结实率
Seed setting
rate (%)
种子列数
Seed column
角果长度
Pod length
(mm)
每角果
种子数
No. of seeds
per pod
种子萌发率
Seed germination
rate (%)
印度蔊菜自花授粉
Self pollination of R. indica
44 43 97.73 2 15.23 ± 2.16 a 90.26 ± 3.89 a 96.70
无瓣蔊菜自花授粉
Self pollination of R. dubia
46 44 95.65 1 29.45 ± 6.52 b 63.28 ± 10.67 b 97.80
♀印度蔊菜 × ♂无瓣蔊菜
R. indica × ♂R. dubia
36 0 0 - - - -
♀无瓣蔊菜 × ♂印度蔊菜
R. dubia × ♂R. indica
34 16 47.06 1 23.97 ± 8.83 b 46.16 ± 15.37 b 0
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