Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 64-75.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018176

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Evaluation of the spatial characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Li Shuang1, Sun Xiaoping1, Fang Yanjun2, Zhang Yinlong1, *(), Cao Mingchang3, *()   

  1. 1 Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    2 Kaihua Environmental Protection Bureau, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    3 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2018-06-25 Accepted:2018-10-24 Online:2019-03-15
  • Zhang Yinlong,Cao Mingchang E-mail:ecoenvylz@163.com;caomingc@163.com

This paper uses the example of the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot (QNPP) to construct an indicator system of farmer livelihood assets based on the sustainable livelihoods framework. The spatial distribution and agglomeration characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in QNPP were next analyzed, and the entropy method, cluster analysis, and spatial autocorrelation analysis were performed. The results were as follows: first, the livelihood assets of different types of farmers followed a gradient of non-agricultural households > concurrent households > pure farmers. The human assets, social assets, and physical assets of non-agricultural households were more valuable than those of concurrent households and pure farmers. Second, asset classification differed significantly among the three types of farmer households. Pure farmers had a greater quantity of primarily medium and low assets, while non-agricultural households had a few higher assets. The levels of livelihood assets were closely related to livelihood activities. Third, the spatial distribution of household livelihood assets belonging to farmers highlighted an increase in asset concentration from southwest to northeast. The livelihood assets of the Hetian Township were relatively balanced among the three groups, whereas Qixi, Changhong and Suzhuang townships had imbalanced asset distributions. Fourth, the distribution of household livelihood assets was consistent with functional position and management intensity in different functional zones. In addition, natural assets were significantly spatially autocorrelated while all other assets had no significant spatial autocorrelation. Finally, based on these findings, suggestions were made to improve the livelihoods of the farmer households in the QNPP.

Key words: sustainable livelihoods, national parks, livelihood asset, spatial characteristics, Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Table 1

Indicator system and weights of farmer households’ livelihood assets in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot"

资本类型
Asset type
生计资本测量指标
Indicator
指标解释与赋值
Interpretation and assignment
指标权重
Weight
人力资本
Human asset
户主受教育水平
Head of household education level
文盲 Illiteracy (0), 小学 Primary (1), 初中 Middle (2),
高中/中专 Senior/ Secondary (3), 大学/大专 College/Junior (4)
0.069
户主健康水平
Head of household health level
健康 Healthy (3), 一般 General (2), 疾病 Illness (1) 0.132
家庭人均教育 Family per capita education 户内成员受教育水平平均值 Average education level of members 0.054
劳动力比 Labor ratio 劳动力人数占家庭总人口数的比例
Ratio of the number of labors in the household
0.1
是否有手艺技术 Craft technology 没有 No (0), 有 Yes (1) 0.344
是否参加过农业培训
Agricultural training
没有 No (0), 有 Yes (1) 0.301
自然资本
Natural asset
耕地面积(亩) Cultivated area (mu) 实际可耕种的耕地面积
Actual arable land area
0.056
园地面积(亩) Garden area (mu) 包括果园和茶园
Orchards and tea plantations
0.062
林地面积(亩) Forest area (mu) 农户占有林地
Own forestland
0.074
耕地质量 Cultivated land quality 很差 Worse (0), 差 Poor (0.25), 一般 General (0.5), 好 Good (0.75),
很好 Well (1)
0.166
园地质量 Garden quality 很差 Worse (0), 差 Poor (0.25), 一般 General (0.5), 好 Good (0.75),
很好 Well (1)
0.287
林地质量 Forest quality 很差 Worse (0), 差 Poor (0.25), 一般 General (0.5), 好 Good (0.75),
很好 Well (1)
0.355
物质资本
Physical asset
房屋建成面积 Housing built up area (m2) < 50 (1), 50-100 (2), 100-200 (3), > 200 (4) 0.186
房屋建筑年限
House construction period (year)
< 5 (1), 5-10 (0.8), 10-20 (0.6), 20-30 (0.4), 30-50 (0.2), > 50 (0) 0.554
户均牲畜养殖数量
Livestock per household
每户拥有的鸡、鸭、鹅、猪、牛、羊等数量 Number of chickens, ducks, geese, pigs, cows, sheep, etc. in each household 0.118
户均物质资产数量
Material assets per household
每户拥有的小汽车、摩托车、电脑、电冰箱、洗衣机、空调等数量
The number of cars, motorcycles, computers, refrigerators, washing machines and air conditioners in each household
0.057
基础设施满意程度
Infrastructure satisfaction
很差 Worse (0), 差 Poor (0.25), 一般 General (0.5), 好 Good (0.75),
很好 Well (1)
0.085
金融资本
Financial asset
户均年现金收入
Annual household income (yuan)
每年现金均收入 Annual cash income 0.034
是否借贷 Loan asset 无 No (0), 有 Yes (1) 0.396
办理贷款方便程度 Convenience of loan 方便 Convenient (1), 一般 General (0.5), 不方便 Inconvenient (0) 0.291
是否有政府补贴 Government subsidies 有 Yes (1), 无 No (0) 0.279
社会资本
Social asset
是否参加农村合作社 Rural cooperatives 否 No (0), 是 Yes (1) 0.226
是否有亲戚在政府任职
Relatives serve in the government
否 No (0), 是 Yes (1) 0.24
家里是否有村民委员会成员
Village committee members per household
否 No (0), 是 Yes (1) 0.308
每年人情往来费
Annual exchange fee (yuan)
< 2,000 (0), 2,000-5,000 (0.25), 5,000-10,000 (0.5), 10,000-20,000 (0.75),
> 20,000 (1)
0.126
每月通讯费用
Monthly communication fee (yuan)
< 30 (0), 30-60 (0.25), 60-100 (0.5), 100-150 (0.75), > 150 (1) 0.1

Fig. 1

Functional zonings of the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot"

Table 2

Classifications of livelihood assets of different types of farmer households"

农户类型
Household type
资本总量
Total assets
高资产户户数
No. of high-capital
household (%)
中资产户户数
No. of middle-capital
household (%)
低资产户户数
No. of low-capital
household (%)
总户数
Total households
纯农户 Pure farmer 2.085 6 (15) 16 (40) 18 (45) 40
兼业户 Concurrent household 2.177 32 (25) 53 (41.4) 43 (33.6) 128
非农户 Non-agricultural household 2.374 17 (32.7) 23 (44.2) 12 (23.1) 52

Fig. 2

Distribution of livelihood assets for different types of farmer households"

Fig. 3

Evaluation of households’ livelihood assets in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot"

Table 3

Classifications of households’ livelihood assets of each administrative village"

资本类型 Asset type 行政村 Administrative village
人力资本缺乏型 Lack of human asset 高升村, 仁宗坑村, 库坑村, 苏庄村, 上村, 溪西村, 霞川村
Gaosheng, Renzongkeng, Kukeng, Suzhuang, Shangcun, Xixi, Xiachuan
自然资本缺乏型 Lack of natural asset 古田村, 霞川村, 唐头村, 苏庄村, 余村, 横中村, 库坑村
Gutian, Xiachuan, Tangtou, Suzhuang, Yucun, Hengzhong, Kukeng
物质资本缺乏型 Lack of physical asset 余村 Yucun
金融资本缺乏型 Lack of financial asset 唐头村, 溪西村, 里秧田村, 仁宗坑村, 高升村, 左溪村
Tangtou, Xixi, Liyangtian, Renzongkeng, Gaosheng, Zuoxi
社会资本缺乏型 Lack of social asset 左溪村 Zuoxi
多种资本缺乏型 Multiple assets shortage 高升村, 仁宗坑村, 库坑村, 苏庄村, 溪西村, 霞川村, 唐头村, 余村, 左溪村
Gaosheng, Renzongkeng, Kukeng, Suzhuang, Xixi, Xiachuan, Tangtou, Yucun, Zuoxi
资本搭配合理型 Reasonable asset allocation 齐溪村, 陆联村, 龙坑村, 田畈村, 真子坑村, 毛坦村
Qixi, Lulian, Longkeng, Tianfan, Zhenzikeng, Maotan

Table 4

Levels of households’ livelihood asset of each administrative village"

行政村
Administrative village
所属乡镇
Township
人力资本
Human asset
自然资本
Natural asset
物质资本
Physical asset
金融资本
Financial asset
社会资本
Social asset
资本总量
Total assets
排名
Rank
横中 Hengzhong 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.651 0.340 0.521 0.552 0.686 2.750 1
里秧田 Liyangtian 齐溪镇 Qixi 0.694 0.513 0.530 0.224 0.630 2.590 2
真子坑 Zhenzikeng 长虹乡 Changhong 0.648 0.398 0.398 0.593 0.467 2.503 3
上村 Shangcun 齐溪镇 Qixi 0.541 0.460 0.573 0.306 0.484 2.363 4
陆联 Lulian 何田乡 Hetian 0.646 0.442 0.508 0.326 0.419 2.341 5
田畈 Tianfan 何田乡 Hetian 0.632 0.468 0.488 0.328 0.421 2.337 6
齐溪 Qixi 齐溪镇 Qixi 0.776 0.512 0.412 0.277 0.351 2.329 7
龙坑 Longkeng 何田乡 Hetian 0.589 0.428 0.393 0.343 0.552 2.305 8
毛坦 Maotan 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.693 0.414 0.385 0.344 0.451 2.287 9
库坑 Kukeng 长虹乡 Changhong 0.526 0.348 0.468 0.371 0.476 2.188 10
左溪 Zuoxi 齐溪镇 Qixi 0.749 0.483 0.446 0.258 0.215 2.151 11
古田 Gutian 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.611 0.262 0.455 0.292 0.445 2.065 12
仁宗坑 Renzongkeng 齐溪镇 Qixi 0.494 0.480 0.404 0.225 0.456 2.059 13
苏庄 Suzhuang 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.530 0.300 0.416 0.312 0.489 2.047 14
溪西 Xixi 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.543 0.430 0.454 0.171 0.423 2.020 15
余村 Yucun 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.689 0.315 0.202 0.304 0.485 1.995 16
唐头 Tangtou 苏庄镇 Suzhuang 0.637 0.296 0.431 0.169 0.461 1.994 17
霞川 Xiachuan 长虹乡 Changhong 0.560 0.273 0.317 0.430 0.387 1.967 18
高升 Gaosheng 何田乡 Hetian 0.478 0.380 0.435 0.257 0.408 1.958 19

Fig. 4

Distribution of farmer households’ livelihood assets in different functional zonings "

Table 5

Spatial intercorrelation of households’ livelihood assets"

生计资本 Livelihood asset Moran’s I指数 Moran’s I index 标准化Z(I)(显著性 = 0.01) Sandardization
人力资本 Human asset -0.012 0.193
自然资本 Natural asset 0.480 2.431
物质资本 Physical asset -0.227 -0.859
金融资本 Financial asset ~0 0.268
社会资本 Social asset 0.053 0.542
资本总量 Total assets -0.207 -0.707
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