Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1212-1222.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018124

• Bioinventory • Previous Article     Next Article

Flora and species composition similarity of the uninhabited islands in the nearshore Xiamen

Lan Xiao1, Linting Zhang1, *(), Shengchang Yang2, Zhihan Zheng2, Degang Jiang1   

  1. 1 Island Research Center, Ministry of Natural Resources, P.R.C., Pingtan, Fujian 350400
    2 College of Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102;
  • Received:2018-04-18 Accepted:2018-08-05 Online:2019-01-08
  • Zhang Linting E-mail:466308925@qq.com
  • About author:# Co-first authors

To find out the main plant community types of uninhabited islands in the nearshore Xiamen, in mid-to-late October 2017, we recorded 360 vascular plant species, including 78 trees, 109 small trees or shrubs, 23 vines and 150 herbs. We also found 49 invasive alien species, 10 of which have been identified as the most serious invasive. Compositional analysis showed that vegetation in these 12 uninhabited islands were of tropical and sub-tropical types. Consistent with the subtropical geography of these islands, vegetation mainly consisted of pan-tropical species and its variants. Generally, the islands had similar species composition. Herbaceous plants dominated the flora of these islands. Power and logarithm functions best described the species-area relationships of island vascular plants. Area had the largest effect on species richness of these islands followed by other spatial parameters such as the ratio of shoreline length, elevation, and perimeter area. Habitat diversity and island edge affected similarity of vascular plant species among different islands. Except for Wuyu Isle, we did not find evidence for small island effects in these surveys.

Key words: uninhabited islands, flora, spatial features, species similarity, invasive alien species

Fig. 1

Geographical distribution of the investigated 12 islands at Amoy Island"

Table 1

Basic information of 12 investigated islands in the nearshore Xiamen"

岛屿名称
Island name
面积
Area (ha)
生境类型数
No. of habitat
types
距大陆距离
Distance to the
mainland (km)
岸线长度
Coastline length
(m)
最大高程
Maximum elevation
(m)
丰富度
Richness
海沧大屿 Haicangdayu (HCDY) 18.00 4 0.27 2,491.80 57.20 100
鸡屿 Jiyu (JY) 40.37 5 1.10 3,641.60 64.40 117
土屿 Tuyu (TY) 0.20 2 10.27 172.90 11.30 47
吾屿 Wuyu (WY) 0.88 2 0.24 419.00 15.80 19
大离浦屿 Dalipuyu (DLPY) 1.83 3 3.83 698.10 16.80 99
火烧屿 Huoshaoyu (HSY) 26.58 4 0.27 2,748.00 34.80 178
鳄鱼屿 Eyuyu (EYY) 7.88 3 1.41 1,579.50 17.60 59
猴屿 Houyu (HY) 1.31 2 1.82 517.60 20.30 41
大兔屿 Datuyu (DTY) 6.02 3 0.41 1,223.60 41.80 115
白兔屿 Baituyu (BTY) 0.64 2 0.67 359.30 19.20 40
乌鸦屿 Wuyayu (WYY) 0.78 2 0.60 397.20 19.30 44
宝珠屿 Baozhuyu (BZY) 0.63 2 1.70 293.80 19.50 54

Table 2

Plant diversity of uninhabited islands in the nearshore Xiamen"

岛屿名称
Island name
Shannon-Wiener
指数 H′
Pielou均匀
度指数 J
属种系数(%)
Generic coefficient
海沧大屿 HCDY 1.75 0.82 88.00
鸡屿 JY 2.04 0.82 92.24
土屿 TY - - 95.45
吾屿 WY - - 100.00
大离浦屿 DLPY 0.46 0.40 94.51
火烧屿 HSY 0.68 0.71 89.89
鳄鱼屿 EYY 0.28 0.20 97.92
猴屿 HY 0.48 0.27 88.64
大兔屿 DTY 0.94 0.47 90.43
白兔屿 BTY 1.03 0.75 97.50
乌鸦屿 WYY - - 95.45
宝珠屿 BZY 0.65 0.25 100.00
均值 Average 0.92 0.52 94.17

Table 3

The areal-types of genera of seed plants in 12 uninhabited islands of the nearshore Xiamen"

分布区系类型及其变型 Areal-types and variations 属数
Number of genus
占总种子植物属数的百分比
Percentage in the seed plants (%)
1 世界分布 Cosmopolitan 26
2 泛热带分布及其变型 Pantropic 82 29.50
3 热带亚洲和热带美洲间断分布 Tropical Asia & Tropical America disjuncted 33 11.87
4 旧世界热带分布及其变型 Old World Tropics 24 8.63
5 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲分布及其变型 Tropical Asia & Tropical Australasia 25 8.99
6 热带亚洲至热带非洲分布及其变型 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 19 6.83
7 热带亚洲分布及其变型 Tropical Asia (Indo-Malesia) 20 7.19
8 北温带分布及其变型 North Temperate 22 7.91
9 东亚和北美洲间断分布及其变型 East Asia & North America disjuncted 9 3.24
10 旧世界温带分布及其变型 O1d World Temperate 6 2.16
11 温带亚洲分布 Temperate Asia 0 0
12 地中海区 西亚至中亚分布及其变型 Mediterranea, West Asia to Central Asia 1 0.36
13 中亚分布及其变型 Central Asia 0 0
14 东亚分布及其变型 East Asia 10 3.60
15 中国特有分布 Endemic to China 1 0.36

Fig. 2

Relationship between species number and island area"

Table 4

Correlation analysis among space characteristic parameter of 12 islands"

面积
Area
距大陆距离
Distance to the
mainland
岸线长度
Coastline
length
最大高程
Maximum
elevation
周长/面积比
Perimeter and area
ratio
距大陆距离 Distance to the mainland -0.280
岸线长度 Coastline length 0.973** -0.351
高程 Elevation 0.842** -0.401 0.868**
周长/面积 Perimeter and area ratio -0.732** 0.683* -0.835** -0.745**
形状指数 Shape index 0.707* -0.435 0.830** 0.697* -0.852**

Table 5

Correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis between islands characteristic and vascular plant species abundance"

面积
Area
距大陆距离
Distance to the mainland
岸线长度
Coastline length
高程
Elevation
周长/面积比
Perimeter
area ratio
形状指数
Shape index
相关性分析 Correlation analysis
物种总数 Total number of species 0.734** -0.206 0.771** 0.647* -0.720** 0.627*
木本植物数 Number of woody plants 0.691* -0.258 0.757** 0.755** -0.725** 0.648*
草本植物数 Number of herbage 0.658* -0.097 0.649* 0.379 -0.581* 0.484
偏相关分析 Partial correlation analysis
物种总数 Total number of species - 0.72 -0.114 0.46 0.437 0.527
木本植物数 Number of woody plants - -0.258 -0.302 -0.156 0.341 0.433
草本植物数 Number of herbage - 0.66 0.148 0.679 0.420 0.51

Table 6

Jaccard similarity index between different islands in the nearshore Xiamen"

宝珠屿
BZY
大离浦屿
DLPY
海沧大屿
HCDY
火烧屿
HSY
鸡屿
JY
土屿
TY
吾屿
WY
猴屿
HY
鳄鱼屿
EYY
乌鸦屿
WYY
大兔屿
DTY
白兔屿 BTY 0.31 0.16 0.42 0.30 0.27 0.09 0.08 0.33 0.65 0.34 0.78
宝珠屿 BZY 0.23 0.13 0.22 0.13 0.11 0.08 0.34 0.07 0.10 0.31
大离浦屿 DLPY 0.21 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.11 0.17 0.30 0.14 0.29
海沧大屿 HCDY 0.21 0.31 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.16 0.32
火烧屿 HSY 0.30 0.16 0.07 0.10 0.16 0.15 0.36
鸡屿 JY 0.22 0.08 0.13 0.32 0.18 0.52
土屿 TY 0.10 0.20 0.15 0.19 0.21
吾屿 WY 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.12
猴屿 HY 0.49 0.24 0.26
鳄鱼屿 EYY 0.29 0.54
乌鸦屿 WYY 0.37

Table 7

Alien invasive plant species profile analysis"

岛屿名称
Island name
恶性入侵类
The most serious invasion
严重入侵类
Serious invasion
局部入侵类
Partial invasion
一般入侵类
General intrusion
有待观察类
To be observed
海沧大屿 HCDY 2 2 2 2 3
鸡屿 JY 7 3 2 2 3
土屿 TY 3 2 1 1 5
吾屿 WY 1 0 1 0 3
大离浦屿 DLPY 3 6 3 2 5
火烧屿 HSY 4 4 5 3 9
鳄鱼屿 EYY 4 2 1 0 4
猴屿 HY 3 2 2 0 3
大兔屿 DTY 6 5 2 1 3
白兔屿 BTY 5 0 1 1 2
乌鸦屿 WYY 3 4 2 0 1
宝珠屿 BZY 4 1 0 1 4
总计 Total 10 14 5 5 15
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