Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 572-577.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017271

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Conservation status of Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations in China

Zejin Zhang1, 2, Yanpei Guo2, Jin-Sheng He2, Zhiyao Tang2, *()   

  1. 1 National Academy of Innovation Strategy, Beijing 100863
    2 College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2017-10-28 Accepted:2018-01-04 Online:2018-09-11
  • Tang Zhiyao E-mail:zytang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

China is characterized as one of the countries with the greatest diversity worldwide, mostly because of its vast area and heterogeneous topography. Meanwhile, the long history of human activity has led to the decrease of populations for considerable species in China. To protect these species, the Chinese government proposed a list of the first batch of Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP). In this study, we developed a fine-resolution distribution database for 120 PSESPs, explored the distribution patterns, and evaluated the in situ conservation status of the PSESPs by overlapping species distribution with terrestrial national and provincial nature reserves (NNRs and PNRs) in China. We found the greatest richness of PSESPs in the southeast regions of Yunnan, the southwest regions of Guangxi, and the southwest regions of Hainan Island. On average, NNRs covered 21.5%, while PNRs covered an additional 10.9% of the distribution areas of PSESPs. However, 35 PSESPs (29% of the total) were not covered by NNRs and 17 PSESPs (14%) were not covered by either NNRs or PNRs. We proposed that nature reserves specifically designed for the PSESPs need to be constructed in the Yunnan and Hainan provinces.

Key words: nature reserves, pattern, species richness, PSESP

Fig. 1

Distribution of richness of Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP)"

Fig. 2

Frequency distribution of percentage of distribution area covered by national nature reserves (NNRs) and provincial nature reserves (PNRs) in China for Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP)"

Fig. 3

Distribution of richness of Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP) not covered by national nature reserves (a) and by either national or provincial nature reserves (b) in China"

[1] Armesto JJ (1998) Conservation targets in South American temperate forests. Science, 282, 1271-1272.
[2] Balmford A, Green RE, Jenkins M (2003) Measuring the changing state of nature. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 326-330.
[3] Brugiere D, Scholte P (2013) Biodiversity gap analysis of the protected area system in poorly-documented Chad. Journal for Nature Conservation, 21, 286-293.
[4] Editorial Committee of Vegetation Map of China(2007) Vegetation Map of the People’s Republic of China (1:1000,000). Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院中国植被图编辑委员会(2007) 中国植被图集(1:1000,000). 地质出版社, 北京.]
[5] ESRI (2012) ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.0. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA.
[6] Flora of China Editorial Committee(2006) Flora of China. Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, Missouri.
[7] Grenyer R, Orme CDL, Jackson SF, Thomas GH, Davies RG, Davies TJ, Jones KE, Olson VA, Ridgely RS, Rasmussen PC, Ding TS, Bennett PM, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, Gittleman JL, Owens IPF (2006) Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates. Nature, 444, 93-96.
[8] Huang H (2011) Plant diversity and conservation in China: Planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 166, 282-300.
[9] Irannezhad M, Chen D, Klove B (2015) Interannual variations and trends in surface air temperature in Finland in relation to atmospheric circulation patterns, 1961-2011. International Journal of Climatology, 35, 3078-3092.
[10] Kullberg P, Moilanen A (2014) How do recent spatial biodiversity analyses support the convention on biological diversity in the expansion of the global conservation area network? Natureza & Conservacao, 12, 3-10.
[11] Liao JY, Peng CL, Tian XM (2015) Study on the current situation and protection countermeasures of PSESP plant resources in Hunan. Chinese Botanical Garden, (18), 47-54. (in Chinese)
[廖菊阳, 彭春良, 田晓明 (2015) 湖南极小种群野生植物资源及保护对策研究. 中国植物园, (18), 47-54.]
[12] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Ecological Management & Restoration, 3, 226-227.
[13] Monastersky R (2014) Biodiversity: life—a status report. Nature, 516, 158-161.
[14] Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
[15] Pan HL, Feng QH, Long TL, He F, Liu XL (2014) Discussion on resource condition and protection technique for rare endanged species in Sichuan Province. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 35(6), 41-46. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[潘红丽, 冯秋红, 隆廷伦, 何飞, 刘兴良 (2014) 四川省极小种群野生植物资源现状及其保护研究. 四川林业科技, 35(6), 41-46.]
[16] Pauchard A, Aguayo M, Peña E, Urrutia R (2006) Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: The case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile). Biological Conservation, 127, 272-281.
[17] Quan J, Ouyang ZY, Xu WH, Miao H (2009) Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: Status quo assessment and countermeasures. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 1739-1746. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[权佳, 欧阳志云, 徐卫华, 苗鸿 (2009) 中国自然保护区管理有效性的现状评价与对策. 应用生态学报, 20, 1739-1746.]
[18] Rabb GB, Sullivan TA (1995) Coordinating conservation—global networking for species survival. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4, 536-543.
[19] Rands MR, Adams WM, Bennun L, Butchart SH, Clements A, Coomes D, Entwistle A, Hodge I, Kapos V, Scharlemann JP (2010) Biodiversity conservation: Challenges beyond 2010. Science, 329, 1298-1303.
[20] Ren H, Zhang QM, Lu HF, Liu HX, Guo QF, Wang J, Jian SG, Bao HO (2012) Wild plant species with extremely small populations require conservation and reintroduction in China. AMBIO, 41, 913-917.
[21] Rodrigues AS, Andelman SJ, Bakarr MI, Boitani L, Brooks TM, Cowling RM, Fishpool LD, da Fonseca GA, Gaston KJ, Hoffmann M, Long JS (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428, 640-643.
[22] Schipper J, Chanson JS, Chiozza F, Cox NA, Hoffmann M, Katariya V, Lamoreux J, Rodrigues AL, Stuart S, Temple HJ (2008) The status of the world’s land and marine mammals: Diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science, 322, 225-230.
[23] [State Forestry Administration of P. R. China (2011) General Planning of National Wildlife and Nature Reserve Construction Project. (in Chinese)
[中华人民共和国林业局 (2011) 全国野生动植物保护及其自然保护区建设工程总体规划] (accessed on 2014-05-06
[24] Tang XP (2012) Classification management pattern of nature reserves and its effectiveness. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 11(4), 44-48. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[唐小平 (2012) 自然保护区分级管理模式及其有效性研究. 北京林业大学学报, 11(4), 44-48.]
[25] Teller BJ, Miller AD, Shea K (2015) Conservation of passively dispersed organisms in the context of habitat degradation and destruction. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 514-521.
[26] Tognelli MF, de Arellano PIR, Marquet PA (2008) How well do the existing and proposed reserve networks represent vertebrate species in Chile? Diversity and Distribution, 14, 148-158.
[27] Warman LD, Forsyth DM, Sinclair ARE, Freemark K, Moore HD, Barrett TW, Pressey RL, White D (2004) Species distributions, surrogacy, and important conservation regions in Canada. Ecology Letters, 7, 374-379.
[28] Wilson K, Newton A, Echeverría C, Weston C, Burgman M (2005) A vulnerability analysis of the temperate forests of south central Chile. Biological Conservation, 122, 9-21.
[29] Wu TY, Walther BA, Chen YH, Lin RS, Lee PF (2013) Hotspot analysis of Taiwanese breeding birds to determine gaps in the protected area network. Zoological Studies, 52, 29.
[30] Yang WZ, Yang YM (2014) Conservation priorities of Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP) in Yunnan Province. Journal of West China Forestry Science, 43, 1-9.
[31] Zhang ZJ, He J-S, Li JS, Tang ZY (2015a) Distribution and conservation of threatened plants in China. Biological Conservation, 192, 454-460.
[32] Zhang ZJ, Yan YJ, Tian Y, Li JS, He J-S, Tang ZY (2015b) Distribution and conservation of orchid species richness in China. Biological Conservation, 181, 64-72.
[33] Zhao GH, Tian Y, Tang ZY, Li JS, Zeng H (2013) Distribution of terrestrial national nature reserves in relation to human activities and natural environments in China. Biodiversity Science, 21, 658-665. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵广华, 田瑜, 唐志尧, 李俊生, 曾辉 (2013) 中国国家级陆地自然保护区分布及其与人类活动和自然环境的关系. 生物多样性, 21, 658-665.]
[34] Zhou Y, Jiang H, Yang WZ, Zhang SS, Xiang ZY (2012) Study on stock of Pinus wangii, an extremely small population species. Journal of West China Forestry Science, 41, 80-83. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[周云, 蒋宏, 杨文忠, 张珊珊, 向振勇 (2012) 极小种群植物毛枝五针松的野生资源状况研究. 西部林业科学, 41, 80-83.]
[1] Ge LI. (2020) Expressional patterns and Bioinformatic Analyses of Salt Stress Responsive Gene IbMYB3 in Ipomoea batatas . Chin Bull Bot, 55(1): 0-0.
[2] TANG Li-Li,ZHANG Mei,ZHAO Xiang-Lin,KANG Mu-Yi,LIU Hong-Yan,GAO Xian-Ming,YANG Tong,ZHENG Pu-Fan,SHI Fu-Chen. (2019) Species distribution and community assembly rules of Juglans mandshurica in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 753-761.
[3] QIN Hao,ZHANG Yin-Bo,DONG Gang,ZHANG Feng. (2019) Altitudinal patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of forest communities in Mount Guandi, Shanxi, China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 762-773.
[4] TANG Li-Li,YANG Tong,LIU Hong-Yan,KANG Mu-Yi,WANG Ren-Qing,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,YUE Ming,ZHANG Mei,ZHENG Pu-Fan,SHI Fu-Chen. (2019) Distribution and species diversity patterns of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla shrublands in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 825-833.
[5] WU Pan,PENG Xi-Qiang,YANG Shu-Ren,GAO Ya-Nan,BAI Feng-Hua,YI Shi-Jie,DU Ning,GUO Wei-Hua. (2019) Spatial distribution patterns and correlation of Tamarix chinensis population in coastal wetlands of Shandong, China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 817-824.
[6] Zou Anlong, Ma Suhui, Ni Xiaofeng, Cai Qiong, Li Xiuping, Ji Chengjun. (2019) Response of understory plant diversity to nitrogen deposition in Quercus wutaishanica forests of Mt. Dongling, Beijing . Biodiv Sci, 27(6): 607-618.
[7] Liu Yan, Yang Yushuang. (2019) Importance of conservation priority areas for bryophyte biodiversity in Chongqing . Biodiv Sci, 27(6): 677-682.
[8] Li Qiang, Wang Bin, Deng Yun, Lin Luxiang, Dawa Zhaxi, Zhang Zhiming. (2019) Correlation between spatial distribution of forest canopy gaps and plant diversity indices in Xishuangbanna tropical forests . Biodiv Sci, 27(3): 273-285.
[9] Chen Lijun,Shu Zufei,Xiao Zhishu. (2019) Application of camera-trapping data to study daily activity patterns of Galliformes in Guangdong Chebaling National Nature Reserve . Biodiv Sci, 27(3): 266-272.
[10] Xuerui Dong, Hong Zhang, Minggang Zhang. (2019) Explaining the diversity and endemic patterns based on phylogenetic approach for woody plants of the Loess Plateau . Biodiv Sci, 27(12): 1269-1278.
[11] Guijun Yang,Min Wang,Yichun Yang,Xinyun Li,Xinpu Wang. (2019) Distribution patterns and environmental interpretation of beetle species richness in Helan Mountain of northern China . Biodiv Sci, 27(12): 1309-1319.
[12] Gao Kexiao, Li Feifei, Liu Xiaoyan, Xiong Yunqi, Li Junsheng, Zhao Caiyun. (2019) Elevational patterns of invasive nonnative and native herbaceous species in Jiuwan Mountain National Nature Reserve of Guangxi . Biodiv Sci, 27(10): 1047-1055.
[13] Zhou Haonan, Zhao Yuhao, Zeng Di, Liu Juan, Jin Tinghao, Ding Ping. (2019) Spatial patterns and influencing factors of ground ant species diversity on the land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(10): 1101-1111.
[14] Dong-Ting ZOU, Qing-Gang WANG, Ao LUO, Zhi-Heng WANG. (2019) Species richness patterns and resource plant conservation assessments of Rosaceae in China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(1): 1-15.
[15] Ren Peng,Yu Jianping,Chen Xiaonan,Shen Xiaoli,Song Xiao,Zhang Tiantian,Yu Yongquan,Ding Ping. (2019) Seasonal variation in the distribution of Elliot’s pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve . Biodiv Sci, 27(1): 13-23.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed