Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 53-65.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017189

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Biodiversity information resources. II. Environmental data

Fenglin Zhang1, 2, Xin Wang1, 2, Jian Zhang1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Tiantong National Station for Forest Ecosystem Research, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
    2 Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092
  • Received:2017-06-25 Accepted:2018-01-05 Online:2018-05-05
  • Zhang Jian E-mail:jzhang@des.ecnu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Environmental data are the basis for addressing many important ecological issues, including biodiversity distribution patterns, mechanisms of biodiversity formation and maintenance, and species conservation. Recently, many types of environment data at regional and global scales have dramatically increased, with the continuous expansion of global environment monitoring networks and emergence of new monitoring technologies. However, the vast amounts of data are scattered all around the world, making it much more difficult for biodiversity researchers to access detailed information and use these data efficiently. In this paper, we combine the main sources of environmental datasets, and classify them into five major groups, including (1) climate, (2) topography, soil and habitat heterogeneity, (3) land cover, (4) hydrology variables, and (5) other data sets. We then select several datasets with high-frequency usage to briefly introduce the data source, data structure, data availability, and data quality. We also select several previous studies to showcase the use of these datasets. In summary, we include 45 environmental data sets in this paper, covering several frequently used data in ecology (e.g., WorldClim and Harmonized World Soil Database), as well as some latest released or seldom used data (e.g., climate change velocity, EarthEnv habitat heterogeneity data, global forest coverage data, and global light pollution data). In addition, it is important to point out that these data sets are only a small fraction of currently available and continuously increasing environmental data. Overall, we hope that the incomplete list of environmental data can provide guidelines for researchers to select and utilize them and other similar data accurately and effectively.

Key words: Key Words: biodiversity informatics, biogeography, macroecology, big data, data sharing

Fig. 1

The numbers of papers published between 2006 and November 2017 using the WorldClim data (Data source: ISI Web of Science)"

Fig. 2

ClimateAP software interface"

Table 1

Texture measures from Global Habitat Heterogeneity. EVI, Enhanced vegetation index (Source: http://www.earthenv.org/ texture)."

度量 Metric 测度 Measure
一阶变量
First-order variables
变量系数 Coefficient of variation EVI的标准分散度 Normalized dispersion of EVI
均匀度 Evenness EVI的均匀度 Evenness of EVI
范围 Range EVI范围 Range of EVI
Shannon指数 EVI的多样性 Diversity of EVI
Simpson指数 EVI的多样性 Diversity of EVI
标准差 Standard deviation EVI的离散度 Dispersion of EVI
二阶变量
Second-order variables
对比度 Contrast 相邻栅格之间EVI的指数加权差异
Exponentially weighted difference in EVI between adjacent pixels
相关度 Correlation 相邻栅格之间EVI的线性关系 Linear dependency of EVI on adjacent pixels
差异性 Dissimilarity 相邻栅格之间EVI的差异 Difference in EVI between adjacent pixels
熵 Entropy EVI的无序性 Disorderliness of EVI
同质性 Homogeneity 相邻栅格之间EVI的相似性 Similarity of EVI between adjacent pixels
最大值 Maximum 相邻栅格之间EVI的优势组合 Dominance of EVI combinations between adjacent pixels
一致性 Uniformity EVI的有序性 Orderliness of EVI
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