Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 972-980.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017163

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Comparative study on reproductive success of Corydalis sheareri (Papaveraceae) between alkaline limestone soil and red soil habitats in a karst area

Zhihuan Huang1, Qifeng Lu1, Yingzhuo Chen2, *()   

  1. 1 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    2 Chengnan Academy, Hunan First Normal University, Changsha 410205
  • Received:2017-06-02 Accepted:2017-09-04 Online:2017-10-04
  • Chen Yingzhuo E-mail:yingzhuochen2011@163.com
  • About author:# Co-first authors

The discontinuous distribution between alkaline limestone soil with high calcium content and acidic red soil with low calcium content is characteristic of karst areas, and strongly affects plant species composition in natural communities. Whether the soil types affect plant reproductive success, however, remains unknown. Two populations of Corydalis sheareri, a species commonly occurring in alkaline limestone soil and acidic red soil, were investigated. The soil properties of the two habitats were examined, and flowering phenology, floral traits, floral visitor types and their behavior, breeding system and reproductive success were compared. Organic matter, total nitrogen, total calcium, and pH value were higher in the limestone soil, while soil moisture content was lower than that found in the red soil. Floral longevity was not significantly different between plants from the two habitats. However, plants found in the limestone soil were shorter in height and bloomed one week later with a shorter flowering period (4 weeks) than those found in the red soil (6 weeks). Floral traits (inflorescence size, flower length, opening size, spur length and stigma diameter) were not significantly different between the two habitats. Corydalis sheareri was obligately xenogamous, with sexual reproduction dependent on insect pollinators. The major floral visitor was Anthophora melanognatha, a long-tongued nectar collecting bee. Bee visit frequency and seed set per flower were not significantly different between the two habitats, but fruit set per plant in the limestone soil was significantly lower. Our results indicated that, no difference in the seed set could be explained by similar pollinator abundance, while the differences of flowering phenology and fruit set could be caused by differences in the soil properties between the two habitats.

Key words: Corydalis sheareri, soil property, flowering phenology, breeding system, fruit set, seed set, reproductive success

Fig. 1

(A) Plants of Corydalis sheareri inhabited in the red soil (acidic); (B) Plants growing near the moist limestone caves with moss (calcareous); (C) A bee (Anthophora melanognatha) collecting nectar from C. sheareri; (D) A hawkmoth (Macroglossum corythus) sucking nectar from C. sheareri."

Table 1

Comparisons of soil properties (mean ± SE) between the limestone and red soil from the two habitats of Corydalis sheareri"

土壤特性 Soil property 样本量 Sample size 石灰岩土壤 Limestone soil 红壤 Red soil T P
含水量 Moisture (%) 3 21.73 ± 0.98 25.15 ± 0.62 2.95 0.04
有机质 Organic matter (g/kg) 3 61.10 ± 1.36 28.37 ± 1.44 -18.36 <0.001
全氮 Total nitrogen (mg/kg) 3 214.36 ± 7.31 87.46 ± 5.89 -13.53 <0.001
全磷 Total phosphorus (mg/kg) 3 11.09 ± 0.81 13.32 ± 1.14 1.52 0.20
全钾 Total potassium (mg/kg) 3 121.35 ± 7.17 110.06 ± 6.45 -1.17 0.31
全钙 Total calcium (g/kg) 3 28.62 ± 3.84 3.18 ± 1.50 -6.54 0.003
pH 3 7.75 ± 0.12 6.29 ± 0.08 -10.27 <0.001

Fig. 2

Flowering phenology of Corydalis sheareri in the two habitats with different soil types"

Table 2

Comparisons of floral traits of Corydalis sheareri from the two habitats with different soil types"

花部特征 Floral characters 样本量 Sample size 红壤 Red soil 石灰岩土壤 Limestone soil T P
植株高度 Plant height (cm) 20 34.8 ± 1.8 30.2 ± 1.3 -2.08 0.04
花数/花序 Flower number/inflorescence 20 20.6 ± 0.7 19.7 ± 0.7 -0.95 0.34
花长 Floral length (mm) 20 27.96 ± 0.24 27.39 ± 0.22 -1.76 0.09
开口大小 Opening size (mm) 20 13.02 ± 0.27 12.45 ± 0.23 -1.62 0.11
距长 Spur length (mm) 20 17.45 ± 0.15 17.12 ± 0.17 -0.98 0.34
柱头直径 Stigma diameter (mm) 20 1.54 ± 0.01 1.49 ± 0.02 -1.86 0.07

Fig. 3

Comparisons of visit frequency among the three floral visitors in the two habitats. The same letter (case-sensitive) means no significant difference between the same floral visitor, while different letters mean significant difference of the same floral visitor between the two habitats; * mean visitation frequency of Anthophora melanognatha significantly higher than the other two floral visitors."

Table 3

Floral visitor types and their visitation frequency to Corydalis sheareri in the two habitats. The different letters for the same column indicate visit frequency was significantly different between plots for the same floral visitor at the level of P < 0.05 by GLM (Gaussian distribution and identity link function)."

土壤类型
Soil type
样地
Plot
观察时间段
Observed censuses (0.5 h)
访问次数/花数?小时 Visits/flowers?h
条蜂 Anthophora 蜜蜂 Honeybee 天蛾 Sphingid
红壤
Red soil
池塘边 Poolside 14 0.19 ± 0.02ab 0b 0.10 ± 0.03ab
路边 Roadside 16 0.16 ± 0.03ab 0.07 ± 0.02a 0c
苗圃角落 Yard’s corner 16 0.24 ± 0.03a 0.11 ± 0.02a 0.16 ± 0.04a
石灰岩土壤
Limestone soil
洞穴外 Near the cave 12 0.20 ± 0.04ab 0b 0.05 ± 0.03b
石缝处 Stony crevices 16 0.11 ± 0.03b 0b 0c
石山小径 Stony pathlet 16 0.17 ± 0.04ab 0b 0.12 ± 0.04ab
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