Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (12): 1335-1340.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016284

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Datasets of vigilance behavior for three rare ungulates

Zhongqiu Li*()   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023
  • Received:2016-10-04 Accepted:2016-12-14 Online:2017-01-10
  • Li Zhongqiu E-mail:lizq0314@gmail.com

Vigilance is an important strategy of anti-predation. After foraging and reproductive behavior, vigilance behavior has become another important research domain in behavioral ecology. However, original raw data of such kinds of study are seldom shared, despite the mounting studies on vigilance behavior of hundreds of birds and mammals. Here I publish vigilance datasets of three rare ungulates in China collected by focal sampling. These datasets include 716 samples, of which 175 are from Przewalski’s gazelle Procapra przewalskii, 180 are from the Tibetan gazelle P. picticaudata and 361 are from Père David’s deer Elaphurus davidianus. I also include environmental variables, including sex, group type, group size, predation risk and human disturbance. A positive group size effect was found in all three ungulates, and this interacted with sex and predation risk/human disturbance. I attempt to establish a criterion for behavioral data collection, and to improve data sharing and exploration in ethology.

Key words: predation risk, anti-predation strategy, group-size effect, Père David’s deer, Przewalski’s gazelle, group size, human disturbance, Tibetan gazelle

Table 1

Summer vigilance behavior of Przewalski’s gazelle in the Upper Buha River, Tianjun County, Qinghai Province"

变量
Variables
均值±标准误
Mean±SE
极差
Range
样本量
N
群体类型 Group type 175
雌性群 Female 98
雄性群 Male 26
母子群 Mother-offspring 51
性别 Sex 175
雌性 Female 98
雄性 Male 26
携幼雌性 Mother 51
捕食风险 Predation risk 175
高 High 16
低 Low 159
群体大小 Group size 5.86 ± 0.35 1-25 175
警戒比例 Vigilant (%) 5.43 ± 0.50 0-40.90 175
警戒频率 Vigilant rate (No./h) 19.26 ± 1.23 0-97.6 175
警戒时长 Vigilant duration (s) 9.60 ± 0.70 2.00-61.67 175

Table 2

Summer vigilance behavior of Tibetan gazelle in Upper Buha River in Tianjun, Qinghai Province"

变量
Variables
均值±标准误
Mean±SE
极差
Range
样本量
N
群体类型 Group type 180
雌性群 Female 135
雄性群 Male 19
母子群 Mother-offspring 26
性别 Sex 180
雌性 Female 135
雄性 Male 19
携幼雌性 Mother 26
捕食风险 Predation risk 180
高 High 35
低 Low 145
群体大小 Group size 5.10 ± 0.22 1-12 180
警戒比例 Vigilant percentage (%) 6.44 ± 0.68 0-55.41 180
警戒频率 Vigilant rate (No. /h) 21.11 ± 1.49 0-117.92 180
警戒时长 Vigilant duration (s) 9.84±0.65 2.00-38.00 180

Table 3

Summer vigilance behavior of Père David’s deer in in Dafeng National Nature Reserve, Jiangsu Province"

变量
Variables
均值±标准误
Mean±SE
极差
Range
样本量
N
群体类型 Group type 361
雌性群 Female 40
雄性群 Male 26
一雄多雌群 Polygamous 143
多雄多雌群 Mixed 152
性别 Sex 361
雌性 Female 203
雄性 Male 158
区域 Area 361
一区 First zone 149
二区 Second zone 212
群体大小 Group size 31.08 ± 2.10 1-303 361
警戒比例 Vigilant percentage (%) 3.50 ± 0.35 0-52.33 361
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