Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (12): 1335-1340.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016284

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Datasets of vigilance behavior for three rare ungulates

Zhongqiu Li*()   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023
  • Received:2016-10-04 Accepted:2016-12-14 Online:2017-01-10
  • Li Zhongqiu

Vigilance is an important strategy of anti-predation. After foraging and reproductive behavior, vigilance behavior has become another important research domain in behavioral ecology. However, original raw data of such kinds of study are seldom shared, despite the mounting studies on vigilance behavior of hundreds of birds and mammals. Here I publish vigilance datasets of three rare ungulates in China collected by focal sampling. These datasets include 716 samples, of which 175 are from Przewalski’s gazelle Procapra przewalskii, 180 are from the Tibetan gazelle P. picticaudata and 361 are from Père David’s deer Elaphurus davidianus. I also include environmental variables, including sex, group type, group size, predation risk and human disturbance. A positive group size effect was found in all three ungulates, and this interacted with sex and predation risk/human disturbance. I attempt to establish a criterion for behavioral data collection, and to improve data sharing and exploration in ethology.

Key words: predation risk, anti-predation strategy, group-size effect, Père David’s deer, Przewalski’s gazelle, group size, human disturbance, Tibetan gazelle

Table 1

Summer vigilance behavior of Przewalski’s gazelle in the Upper Buha River, Tianjun County, Qinghai Province"

群体类型 Group type 175
雌性群 Female 98
雄性群 Male 26
母子群 Mother-offspring 51
性别 Sex 175
雌性 Female 98
雄性 Male 26
携幼雌性 Mother 51
捕食风险 Predation risk 175
高 High 16
低 Low 159
群体大小 Group size 5.86 ± 0.35 1-25 175
警戒比例 Vigilant (%) 5.43 ± 0.50 0-40.90 175
警戒频率 Vigilant rate (No./h) 19.26 ± 1.23 0-97.6 175
警戒时长 Vigilant duration (s) 9.60 ± 0.70 2.00-61.67 175

Table 2

Summer vigilance behavior of Tibetan gazelle in Upper Buha River in Tianjun, Qinghai Province"

群体类型 Group type 180
雌性群 Female 135
雄性群 Male 19
母子群 Mother-offspring 26
性别 Sex 180
雌性 Female 135
雄性 Male 19
携幼雌性 Mother 26
捕食风险 Predation risk 180
高 High 35
低 Low 145
群体大小 Group size 5.10 ± 0.22 1-12 180
警戒比例 Vigilant percentage (%) 6.44 ± 0.68 0-55.41 180
警戒频率 Vigilant rate (No. /h) 21.11 ± 1.49 0-117.92 180
警戒时长 Vigilant duration (s) 9.84±0.65 2.00-38.00 180

Table 3

Summer vigilance behavior of Père David’s deer in in Dafeng National Nature Reserve, Jiangsu Province"

群体类型 Group type 361
雌性群 Female 40
雄性群 Male 26
一雄多雌群 Polygamous 143
多雄多雌群 Mixed 152
性别 Sex 361
雌性 Female 203
雄性 Male 158
区域 Area 361
一区 First zone 149
二区 Second zone 212
群体大小 Group size 31.08 ± 2.10 1-303 361
警戒比例 Vigilant percentage (%) 3.50 ± 0.35 0-52.33 361
[1] Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-267.
[2] Beauchamp G (2008) What is the magnitude of the group-size effect on vigilance? Behavioral Ecology, 19, 1361-1368.
[3] Beauchamp G (2010) A comparative analysis of vigilance in birds. Evolutionary Ecology, 24, 1267-1276.
[4] Beauchamp G (2014) Social Predation: How Group Living Benefits Predators and Prey. Academic Press, London.
[5] Beauchamp G (2015) Animal Vigilance: Monitoring Competitors and Predators. Academic Press, Oxford.
[6] Bhatnagar YV, Wangchuk R, Mishra C (2006) Decline of the Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata in Ladakh, India. Oryx, 40, 229-232.
[7] Blumstein DT, Daniel JC (2005) The loss of anti-predator behaviour following isolation on islands. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 272, 1663-1668.
[8] Cameron EZ, du Toit JT (2005) Social influences on vigilance behaviour in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis. Animal Behaviour, 69, 1337-1344.
[9] Che Y, Li ZQ (2014) Vigilance behavior of animals: overview and perspective. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 33, 144-150.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[车烨, 李忠秋 (2014) 动物的警戒行为——回顾与展望. 四川动物,33, 144-150.]
[10] Childress MJ, Lung MA (2003) Predation risk, gender and the group size effect: does elk vigilance depend upon the behaviour of conspecifics? Animal Behaviour, 66, 389-398.
[11] Clutton-Brock TH, Iason GR, Albon SD, Guinnes FE (1982) The effects of lactation on feeding behaviour and habitat use of wild red deer hinds. Journal of Zoology, 198, 227-236.
[12] Couchoux C, Cresswell W (2012) Personality constraints versus flexible antipredation behaviors: how important is boldness in risk management of redshanks (Tringa totanus) foraging in a natural system? Behavioral Ecology, 23, 290-301.
[13] Ding YH (2004) Chinese Milu Research. Jilin Publishing House for Science and Technology, Changchun.(in Chinese)
[丁玉华 (2004) 中国麋鹿研究. 吉林科技出版社, 长春.]
[14] Ge C, Li ZQ, Li J, Huang C (2011a) The effects on birds of human encroachment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16, 604-606.
[15] Ge C, Beauchamp G, Li ZQ (2011b) Coordination and synchronisation of anti-predation vigilance in two crane species. PLoS ONE, 6, e26447.
[16] Jiang ZG, Yu CQ, Feng ZJ, Zhang LY, Xia JS, Ding YH, Lindsay N (2000) Père David’s deer in China. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 681-687.
[17] Jiang ZG (2004) Przewalski’s Gazelle. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[蒋志刚 (2004)中国普氏原羚. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
[18] Jiang ZG, Zhang LY, Yang RS, Xia JS, Rao CG, Ding YH, Shen H, Xu AH, Yu CQ (2001) Density dependent growth and population management strategy for Père David’s deer in China. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 47, 53-58.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[蒋志刚, 张林源, 杨戎生, 夏经世, 饶成刚, 丁玉华, 沈华, 徐安红, 于长青 (2001) 中国麋鹿种群密度制约现象与发展策略. 动物学报,47, 53-58.]
[19] Jiang ZG, Jiang JP, Wang YZ, Zhang E, Zhang YY, Li LL, Xie F, Cai B, Cao L, Zheng GM, Dong L, Zhang ZW, Ding P, Luo ZH, Ding CQ, Ma ZJ, Tang SH, Cao WX, Li CW, Hu HJ, Ma Y, Wu Y, Wang YX, Zhou KY, Liu SY, Chen YY, Li JT, Feng ZJ, Wang Y, Wang B, Li C, Song X, Cai L, Zang CX, Zeng Y, Meng ZB, Fang HX, Ping XG (2016) Red List of China’s Vertebrates. Biodiversity Science, 24, 500-551.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[蒋志刚, 江建平, 王跃招, 张鹗, 张雁云, 李立立, 谢锋, 蔡波, 曹亮, 郑光美, 董路, 张正旺, 丁平, 罗振华, 丁长青, 马志军, 汤宋华, 曹文宣, 李春旺, 胡慧建, 马勇, 吴毅, 王应祥, 周开亚, 刘少英, 陈跃英, 李家堂, 冯祚建, 王燕, 王斌, 李成, 宋雪琳, 蔡蕾, 臧春鑫, 曾岩, 孟智斌, 方红霞, 平晓鸽 (2016) 中国脊椎动物红色名录. 生物多样性,24, 500-551.]
[20] Lei RH, Jiang ZG, Liu BW (2001) Group pattern and social segregation in Przewalski’s gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) around Qinghai Lake, China. Journal of Zoology, 255, 175-180.
[21] Li CW, Jiang ZG, Li LL, Li ZQ, Fang HX, Li CW, Beauchamp G (2012a) Effects of reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size on vigilance patterns in Przewalski’s gazelle. PLoS ONE, 7, e32607.
[22] Li CL, Jiang ZG, Ping XG, Cai J, You ZQ, Li CL, Wu YL (2012b) Current status and conservation of the endangered Przewalski’s gazelle Procapra przewalskii, endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Oryx, 46, 145-153.
[23] Li CW, Jiang ZG, Tang SH, Zeng Y (2007) Evidence of effects of human disturbance on alert response in Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Zoological Biology, 26, 461-470.
[24] Li CW, Yang XB, Ding YH, Zhang LY, Fang HX, Tang SH, Jiang ZG (2011) Do Père David’s deer lose memories of their ancestral predators? PLoS ONE, 6, e23623.
[25] Li CW, Jiang ZG, Tang SH (2006) Patterns of vigilance behavior, alert distance and its seasonal difference in free-ranging Père David’s deer. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 52, 942-947.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李春旺, 蒋志刚, 汤宋华 (2006) 散放麇鹿的警戒行为模式、警戒距离及其季节差异. 动物学报,52, 942-947.]
[26] Li ZQ, Jiang ZG (2008) Group size effect on vigilance: evidence from Tibetan gazelle in Upper Buha River, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Behavioural Processes, 78, 25-28.
[27] Li ZQ, Jiang ZG, Beauchamp G (2009) Vigilance in Przewalski’s gazelle: effects of sex, predation risk and group size. Journal of Zoology, 277, 302-308.
[28] Li ZQ, Wang Z, Ge C (2013) Time budgets of wintering red-crowned cranes: effects of habitat, age and family size. Wetlands, 33, 227-232.
[29] Lian XM, Li XX, Zhou DX, Yan PS (2012) Avoidance distance from Qinghai-Tibet highway in sympatric Tibetan antelope and gazelle. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 17, 585-587.
[30] Pays O, Dubot AL, Jarman PJ, Loisel P, Goldizen AW (2009) Vigilance and its complex synchrony in the red-necked pademelon, Thylogale thetis. Behavioral Ecology, 20, 22-29.
[31] Pays O, Renaud PC, Loisel P, Petit M, Gerard JF, Jarman PJ (2007) Prey synchronize their vigilant behaviour with other group members. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 1287-1291.
[32] Robinette RL, Ha JC (2001) Social and ecological factors influencing vigilance by northwestern crows, Corvus caurinus. Animal Behaviour, 62, 447-452.
[33] Schaller GB (1998) Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
[34] Shi JB, Beauchamp G, Dunbar R (2010) Group-size effect on vigilance and foraging in a predator-free population of Feral goats (Capra hircus) on the Isle of Rum, NW Scotland. Ethology, 116, 329-337.
[35] Wang Z, Li ZQ, Beauchamp G, Jiang ZG (2011) Flock size and human disturbance affect vigilance of endangered red-crowned cranes. Biological Conservation, 144, 101-105.
[36] Zheng W, Beauchamp G, Jiang XL, Li ZQ, Yang QL (2013) Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Père David’s deer. Current Zoology, 59, 265-270.
[1] Xinhui Li,Yanhong Liu,Ye Liu,Yue Xu,Yang Yang,Zehao Shen. (2016) Impacts of geographical distances and environmental differences on the beta diversity of plant communities in the dry-hot valley of the Yuanjiang River . Biodiv Sci, 24(4): 399-406.
[2] Wen Wu,Yuehui Li,Yuanman Hu,Long Chen,Yue Li,Zeming Li,Zhiwen Nie,Tan Chen. (2016) Suitable winter habitat for Cervus elaphus on the southern slope of the Lesser Xing’an Mountains . Biodiv Sci, 24(1): 20-29.
[3] Wenhong Xiao,Limin Feng,Xiaodan Zhao,Haitao Yang,Hailong Dou,Yanchao Cheng,Pu Mou,Tianming Wang,Jianping Ge. (2014) Distribution and abundance of Amur tiger, Amur leopard and their ungulate prey in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin . Biodiv Sci, 22(6): 717-724.
[4] Yunzhu Liu,Linlu Shi,Hairui Duo,Boyong Peng,Cai Lü,Yi Zhu,Guangchun Lei. (2013) Disturbance-driven changes to landscape patterns and responses of waterbirds at West Dongting Lake, China . Biodiv Sci, 21(6): 666-676.
[5] ZHANG Min, PAN Yan-Xia, and YANG Hong-Xiao. (2013) Species abundance patterns of supratidal sandy grassland along China’s Shandong Peninsula and their responses to human disturbances . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 37(6): 542-550.
[6] Fengying Zheng,Guanglong Qiu,Hangqing Fan,Wei Zhang. (2013) Diversity, distribution and conservation of Chinese seagrass species . Biodiv Sci, 21(5): 517-526.
[7] Jiji Sun, Siyu Wang, Yanping Wang, Deyu Shao, Ping Ding. (2011) Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province . Biodiv Sci, 19(5): 528-534.
[8] Yang Liu, Jian Zhang, Wanqin Yang. (2009) Responses of alpine biodiversity to climate change . Biodiv Sci, 17(1): 88-96.
[10] Yuewei Yang, Guirong Xia, Ping Ding, Renfan Ma, Yuzhao Chen. (2005) Species diversity of water birds in the wetland of Yueqing Bay, Zhejiang Province . Biodiv Sci, 13(6): 507-513.
[11] Yiming Li, Mingyao Liao, Jie Yu, Jingyuan Yang. (2005) Effects of annual change in group size, human disturbances and weather on daily travel distance of a group in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhi-nopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China . Biodiv Sci, 13(5): 432-438.
[12] LIAN Xin-Ming, SU Jian-Ping, ZHANG Tong-Zuo, CAO Yi-Fan. (2004) Grouping behavior of the Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) in Hoh Xil region, China . Biodiv Sci, 12(5): 488-493.
[13] Li Yiming, Li Dianmo. (1994) The effects of human activities on large and middle mammals on Zhoushan Islands -- Analysis of threatened status of large and middle mammals . Biodiv Sci, 02(3): 140-145.
Full text