Biodiversity Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 759-766.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015109

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Phylogeography of Typha laxmannii in the northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent areas

Zhenjie Ding, Dan Yu, Xinwei Xu*()   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430070
  • Received:2015-05-03 Accepted:2015-11-09 Online:2015-12-02
  • Xu Xinwei

Quaternary climatic oscillation had a significant role in the patterns of geographic distribution and genetic structure of plants occurring in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas. In this study, we examined the phylogeographical structure of Typha laxmannii in the northeast QTP and adjacent areas based on 15 populations and 148 individuals using sequences of chloroplast rpl32-trnL and nuclear phytochelatin synthase gene. Two chloroplast haplotypes and eight nuclear haplotypes were found. All haplotypes were shared and no private haplotype was fixed in plateau populations. The genetic diversity of the populations in adjacent areas based on chloroplast DNA and nuclear DNA was four and two times greater than that of plateau populations, respectively. Genetic differentiation among plateau populations, which mainly existed between the eastern and western populations, was higher than that among adjacent areas. Our results indicate that the present patterns of genetic diversity and genetic structure of T. laxmannii in the northeast QTP and its adjacent areas were caused by postglacial recolonization from at least two refugia to plateau platform and a resulting founder effect.

Key words: graceful cattail, chloroplast rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer, phytochelatin synthase, phylogeography

Table 1

Geographic and genetic characteristics of 15 Typha laxmannii populations surveyed for chloroplast (cp) DNA and nuclear DNA sequences"

Fig. 1

The distribution of cpDNA haplotypes (A) and nDNA haplotypes (B) for Typha laxmannii populations. The population codes are the same as those in Table 1."

Fig. 2

The network of cpDNA haplotypes (A) and nDNA haplotypes (B) of Typha laxmannii. The haplotype codes are the same as those in Fig. 1."

Table 2

Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of PS and rpl32-trnL sequences from Typha laxmannii populations"

Source of variation
Degrees of
Sum of
Variance components
Percentage of
叶绿体DNA cpDNA
Plateau platform
种群间 Among populations 5 0.876 0.010 0.210
种群内 Within population 78 2.933 0.038 0.790
Adjacent areas
种群间 Among populations 8 3.014 0.025 0.111
种群内 Within population 55 11.095 0.202 0.889
Plateau platform and adjacent areas
地区间 Among groups 1 14.155 0.190 0.602
Among populations within group
13 3.890 0.020 0.064
种群内 Within population 133 14.029 0.105 0.334
Plateau platform
种群间 Among populations 6 47.282 0.348 0.402
种群内 Within population 147 76.231 0.519 0.598
Adjacent areas
种群间 Among populations 8 43.106 0.304 0.169
种群内 Within population 109 162.911 1.495 0.831
Plateau platform and adjacent areas
地区间 Among groups 1 24.261 0.122 0.087
Among populations within group
13 89.515 0.338 0.243
种群内 Within population 257 240.015 0.934 0.670

Fig. 3

Mismatch distribution for chloroplast (A) and nuclear (B) sequence data of all individuals of Typha laxmannii"

1 Avise JC, Arnold J, Ball RM, Bermingham E, Lamb T, Neigel JE, Reeb CA, Saunders NC (1987) Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics.Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18, 489-522.
2 Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Röhl A (1999) Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies.Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16, 37-48.
3 Beheregaray LB (2008) Twenty years of phylogeography: the state of the field and the challenges for the Southern Hemisphere.Molecular Ecology, 17, 3754-3774.
4 Chen JM, Du ZY, Sun SS, Gituru RW, Wang QF (2013) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography reveals repeated range expansion in a widespread aquatic herb Hippuris vulgaris in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas.PLoS ONE, 8, e60948.
5 Chen JM, Du ZY, Yuan YY, Wang QF (2014) Phylogeography of an alpine aquatic herb Ranunculus bungei (Ranunculaceae) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 52, 313-325.
6 Ekstam B, Forseby Å (1999) Germination response of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia to diurnal fluctua- tions in temperature.Seed Science Research, 9, 157-163.
7 Excoffier L, Lischer HEL (2010) Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows.Molecular Ecology Resources, 10, 564-567.
8 Jia DR, Liu TL, Wang LY, Zhou DW, Liu JQ (2011) Evolutionary history of an alpine shrub Hippophae tibetana (Elaeagnaceae): allopatric divergence and regional expansion.Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 102, 37-50.
9 Katoh K, Misawa K, Kuma KI, Miyata T (2002) MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform.Nucleic Acids Research, 30, 3059-3066.
10 Keane B, Pelikan S, Toth GP, Smith MK, Rogstad SH (1999) Genetic diversity of Typha latifolia (Typhaceae) and the impact of pollutants examined with tandem-repetitive DNA probes.American Journal of Botany, 86, 1226-1238.
11 Kim C, Choi HK (2011) Molecular systematics and character evolution of Typha (Typhaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data.Taxon, 60, 1417-1428.
12 Krattinger K (1975) Genetic mobility in Typha.Aquatic Botany, 1, 57-70.
13 Lamote V, De Loose M, Van Bockstaele E, Roldán-Ruiz I (2005) Evaluation of AFLP markers to reveal genetic diversity in Typha.Aquatic Botany, 83, 296-309.
14 Lee DW, Fairbrothers DE (1973) Enzyme differences between adjacent hybrid and parent populations of Typha.Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 100, 3-11.
15 Li L, Abbott RJ, Liu B, Sun Y, Li L, Zou J, Wang X, Miehe G, Liu J (2013) Pliocene intraspecific divergence and Plio- Pleistocene range expansions within Picea likiangensis (Lijiang spruce), a dominant forest tree of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Molecular Ecology, 22, 5237-5255.
16 Librado P, Rozas J (2009) DnaSP V5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data.Bioinformatics, 25, 1451-1452.
17 Liu JQ, Sun YS, Ge XJ, Gao LM, Qiu YX (2012) Phylogeographic studies of plants in China: advances in the past and directions in the future.Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 50, 267-275.
18 Liu YP, Su X, He YH, Han LM, Huang YY, Wang ZZ (2015) Evolutionary history of Orinus thoroldii (Poaceae), endemic to the western Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China.Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 59, 159-167.
19 Mashburn SJ, Sharitz RR, Smith MH (1978) Genetic variation among Typha populations of the southeastern United States.Evolution, 32, 681-685.
20 McNaughton S (1966) Ecotype function in the Typha community-type.Ecological Monographs, 36, 298-325.
21 Meng L, Yang R, Abbott RJ, Miehe G, Hu T, Liu J (2007) Mitochondrial and chloroplast phylogeography of Picea crassifolia Kom. (Pinaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent highlands.Molecular Ecology, 16, 4128-4137.
22 Na HR, Kim C, Choi HK (2010) Genetic relationship and genetic diversity among Typha taxa from East Asia based on AFLP markers.Aquatic Botany, 92, 207-213.
23 Pons O, Petit RJ (1996) Measuring and testing genetic differentiation with ordered versus unordered alleles.Genetics, 144, 1237-1245.
24 Qiu YX, Fu CX, Comes HP (2011) Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world’s most diverse temperate flora.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59, 225-244.
25 Sharitz RR, Wineriter SA, Smith MH, Liu EH (1980) Comparison of isozymes among Typha species in the eastern United States.American Journal of Botany, 67, 1297-1303.
26 Shaw J, Lickey EB, Schilling EE, Small RL (2007) Comparison of whole chloroplast genome sequences to choose noncoding regions for phylogenetic studies in angiosperms: the tortoise and the hare III.American Journal of Botany, 94, 275-288.
27 Sun K, Simpson D (2010) Typhaceae. In: Flora of China (eds Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY), Vol. 23, pp. 158-163. Science Press, Beijing, China and Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
28 Sun YS, Ikeda H, Wang YJ, Liu JQ (2010) Phylogeography of Potentilla fruticosa (Rosaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau revisited: a reappraisal and new insights.Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3, 249-257.
29 Sun YS, Li L, Li L, Zou JB, Liu JQ (2014) Distributional dynamics and interspecific gene flow in Picea likiangensis and P. wilsonii triggered by climate change on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Journal of Biogeography, 42, 475-484.
30 Tsyusko OV, Smith MH, Sharitz RR, Glenn TC (2005) Genetic and clonal diversity of two cattail species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia (Typhaceae), from Ukraine.American Journal of Botany, 92, 1161-1169.
31 Wang GN, He XY, Miehe G, Mao KS (2014) Phylogeography of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic alpine herb Pomato- sace filicula (Primulaceae).Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 52, 289-302.
32 Yang FS, Li YF, Ding X, Wang XQ (2008) Extensive population expansion of Pedicularis longiflora (Orobanchaceae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its correlation with the Quaternary climate change.Molecular Ecology, 17, 5135-5145.
33 Zhang Q, Chiang TY, George M, Liu JQ, Abbott RJ (2005) Phylogeography of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau endemic Juniperus przewalskii (Cupressaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA sequence variation.Molecular Ecology, 14, 3513-3524.
34 Zhang TC, Comes HP, Sun H (2011) Chloroplast phylogeography of Terminalia franchetii (Combretaceae) from the eastern Sino-Himalayan region and its correlation with historical river capture events. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 60, 1-12.
35 Zhang XH, Tapia M, Webb JB, Huang YH, Miao S (2008) Molecular signatures of two cattail species, Typha domingensis and Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), in South Florida.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49, 368-376.
36 Zhao CX, Ma G, Liang QL, Wang CB, He XJ (2013) Phylogeography of an alpine plant (Bupleurum smithii, Apiaceae) endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions inferred from chloroplast DNA sequence variation.Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 51, 382-395.
[1] Hu Ying, Wang Xi, Zhang Xinxin, Zhou Wei, Chen Xiaoyang, Hu Xinsheng. (2019) Advancing phylogeography with chloroplast DNA markers . Biodiv Sci, 27(2): 219-234.
[2] Yingxiong Qiu,Qixiang Lu,Yonghua Zhang,Yanan Cao. (2017) Phylogeography of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants: current progress and future prospects . Biodiv Sci, 25(2): 136-146.
[3] De-Xing Zhang. (2015) Unorthodox reflections on molecular ecology research in China . Biodiv Sci, 23(5): 559-569.
[4] De-Xing Zhang. (2015) Unorthodox reflections on molecular ecology research in China . Biodiv Sci, 23(5): 559-569.
[5] Hongyu Niu, Hao Shen, Wanhui Ye. (2010) Whole-range studies on alien plant invasion: recent progress and future prospects . Biodiv Sci, 18(6): 559-568.
[7] WANG Zheng-FengZHANG Jun-LiLI Ming-GuangWANG Bo-Sun HE Xing-JinPENG Shao-Lin. (2002) Advances of Plant Molecular Ecology (II)——Phylogeography, Alien Species, Conservation Genetics and Others . Chin Bull Bot, 19(01): 1-10.
Full text