Biodiversity Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 217-224.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015049

Special Issue: On IUCN’s Green List of Protected Areas

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Overview of higher plant diversity in China

Lisong Wang*(), Yu Jia, Xianchun Zhang, Haining Qin   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Systematics and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2015-03-06 Accepted:2015-03-14 Online:2015-04-09
  • Wang Lisong E-mail:lswang@ibcas.ac.cn

According to an overview of higher plant diversity in China, China has 35,112 native species of higher plants belonging to 3,818 genera and 454 families. Among them, there are 3,045 bryophyte species in 602 genera and 151 families, 2,124 pteridophyte species in 176 genera and 38 families, 227 gymnosperm species in 37 genera and 8 families, and 29,716 angiosperm species in 3,003 genera and 257 families. Comparisons with recent estimates of global species diversity suggests that the species diversity of Chinese bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms account for 18.8%, 17.7%, 22.2% and 11.1%, respectively of the global totals. A total of 212 genera are endemic to China with 7 bryophytes, 2 pteridophytes, 7 gymnosperms, and 196 angiosperms. A total of 17,439 species are endemic to China including 524 bryophytes, 840 pteridophytes, 115 gymnosperms, and 15,960 angiosperms. The percentages of endemic species (POES) for each group in the country are 17.2%, 39.6%, 50.7%, and 53.7%, respectively. This translates to a POES of 49.7% for higher plants (including bryophytes, pteridophytes and seed plants), a POES of 52.8% for vascular plants (including pteridophytes and seed plants), and a POES of 53.7% for seeds plants (including gymnosperms and angiosperms). The top 10 families with highest species diversity are Asteraceae (227 genera/2,315 species), Poaceae (215/1,787), Fabaceae (141/1,631), Orchidaceae (205/1,556), Lamiaceae (103/975), Ranunculaceae (38/957), Rosaceae (53/954), Cyperaceae (32/871), Ericaceae (22/841), and Rubiaceae (94/696). The top 12 families with highest endemic genera are Gesneriaceae (26 genera), Asteraceae (18), Orchidaceae (14), Lamiaceae (11), Apiaceae (9), Brassicaceae (9), Apocynaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Melastomataceae (5), Boraginaceae (4), Rubiaceae (4), and Ranunculaceae (4). The top 10 genera with highest species diversity are Rhododendron (588 species), Carex (537), Astragalus (420), Pedicularis (363), Corydalis (357), Primula (310), Saussurea (293), Salix (279), Impatiens (274), and Gentiana (255). The top 10 genera with highest endemic species are: Rhododendron (433 species), Pedicularis (283), Carex (273), Corydalis (258), Astragalus (237), Impatiens (234), Primula (222), Berberis (209), Elatostema (207), and Saussurea (196). Diversity bearing with more than 5,000 species among the seven Chinese provinces is as follows: Yunnan (15,900 species), Sichuan (10,374), Tibet (7,629), Guangxi (7,399), Guizhou (6,405), Guangdong (5,498) and Taiwan (5,290). Among the 17 mega-diversity countries China is ranked the fourth when ordered by total species diversity and, seventh when ordered by POES.

Key words: higher plant, flora, descriptive taxonomy, checklist, China

Table 1

Diversity of higher plants in China"

苔藓
Bryophyte
蕨类
Pteridophyte
裸子植物
Gymnosperm
被子植物
Angiosperm
总计
Total
科 Families 151 38 8 257 454
属 Genera 602 176 37 3,003 3,818
种 Species 3,045 2,124 227 29,716 35,112
中国特有属 Genera endemic to China 7 2 7 196 212
中国特有种 Species endemic to China 524 840 115 15,960 17,439
中国特有种比例 Species endemic to China (%) 17.2 39.6 50.7 53.7 49.7
世界已描述的种类 World described species 16,236 12,000 1,021 268,600 297,857
世界估计的种类 World estimated species ~22,750 ~15,000 ~1,050 ~352,000
中国种类占世界物种多样性的比例 Species in China
accounting for global diversity (%)
18.8 17.7 22.2 11.1 11.8

Table 2

Top 10 families with highest species diversity"

科名 Family 属数
No. of genus
特有属数
No. of endemic genera
种数
No. of species
特有种数
No. of endemic species
菊科 Asteraceae 227 18 2,315 1,217
禾本科 Poaceae 215 6 1,787 875
豆科 Fabaceae 141 1 1,631 729
兰科 Orchidaceae 205 14 1,556 601
唇形科 Lamiaceae 103 11 975 603
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 38 4 957 645
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 53 3 954 570
莎草科 Cyperaceae 32 - 871 341
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 22 - 841 548
茜草科 Rubiaceae 94 4 696 362

Table 3

Top 10 genera with highest species diversity"

科名 Family 属名 Genus 属下种数 No. of species 特有种数 No. of endemic species
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 杜鹃花属 Rhododendron 588 433
莎草科 Cyperaceae 薹草属 Carex 537 273
豆科 Fabaceae 黄芪属 Astragalus 420 237
列当科 Orobanchaceae 马先蒿属 Pedicularis 363 283
罂粟科 Papaveraceae 紫堇属 Corydalis 357 258
报春花科 Primulaceae 报春花属 Primula 310 222
菊科 Asteraceae 风毛菊属 Saussurea 293 196
杨柳科 Salicaceae 柳属 Salix 279 194
凤仙花科 Balsaminaceae 凤仙花属 Impatiens 274 234
龙胆科 Gentianaceae 龙胆属 Gentiana 255 173

Table 4

Higher plants diversity and endemism in 17 megadiverse countries"

国家
Country
物种数
No. of species
特有种数
No. of endemic species
物种数(平均)
No. of species (mean)
特有种数目(平均)
No. of endemic species (mean)
澳大利亚 Australia 15,638 14,458 21,171 18,201
巴西 Brazil 50,000-56,000 16,500-18,500 35,578 19,165
中国 China 27,100-30,000 10,000 35,978 17,740
哥伦比亚 Colombia 45,000-51,000 15,000-17,000 48,000 16,000
刚果 Congo 11,000 3,200 11,000 3,200
厄瓜多尔 Ecuador 17,600-21,100 4,000-5,000 19,350 4,500
印度 India >17,000 7,025-7,875 17,000 7,450
印度尼西亚 Indonesia 37,000 14,800-18,500 37,000 16,650
马达加斯加 Madagascar 11,000-12,000 8,800-9,600 11,350 9,200
马来西亚 Malaysia 15,000 6,500-8,000 15,000 7,250
墨西哥 Mexico 18,000-30,000 10,000-15,000 24,000 12,500
巴布亚新几内亚 Papua New Guinea 15,000-21,000 10,500-16,000 18,000 13,250
秘鲁 Peru 18,000-20,000 5,356 19,000 5,356
菲律宾 Philippines 8,000-12,000 3,800-6,000 10,000 4,900
南非 South Africa 23,420 16,500 21,817 15,370
美国 United States of America 18,956 4,036 18,956 4,036
委内瑞拉 Venezuela 15,000-21,070 5,000-8,000 18,035 6,500

Table S1

Genera of higher plants endemic to China"

类群 Group 科名 Family 特有属 Genus endemic to China 特有种数
No. of species endemic
苔藓 葫芦藓科 Funariaceae 拟短月藓属 Brachymeniopsis 1
Bryophyte 青藓科 Brachytheciaceae 拟无毛藓属 Juratzkaeella 1
薄罗藓科 Leskeaceae 薄羽藓属 Leptocladium 1
蕨藓科 Pterobryaceae 滇蕨藓属 Pseudopterobryum 2
白齿藓科 Leucodontaceae 疣齿藓属 Scabridens 1
柳叶藓科 Amblystegiaceae 厚边藓属 Sciaromiopsis 1
异齿藓科 Regmatodontaceae 云南藓属 Yunnanobryon 1
蕨类 Pteridophyte 金星蕨科 Thelypteridaceae 边果蕨属 Craspedosorus 1
水龙骨科 Polypodiaceae 扇蕨属 Neocheiropteris 2
裸子植物 柏科 Cupressaceae 水松属 Glyptostrobus 1
Gymnosperm 水杉属 Metasequoia 1
银杏科 Ginkgoaceae 银杏属 Ginkgo 1
松科 Pinaceae 银杉属 Cathaya 1
长苞铁杉属 Nothotsuga 1
金钱松属 Pseudolarix 1
红豆杉科 Taxaceae 白豆杉属 Pseudotaxus 1
被子植物 爵床科 Acanthaceae 银脉爵床属 Kudoacanthus 1
Angiosperm 猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 藤山柳属 Clematoclethra 1
五福花科 Adoxaceae 华福花属 Sinadoxa 1
四福花属 Tetradoxa 1
枫香科 Altingiaceae 半枫荷属 Semiliquidambar 3
苋科 Amaranthaceae 单性滨藜属 Archiatriplex 1
苞藜属 Baolia 1
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 蕉木属 Chieniodendron 1
伞形科 Apiaceae 滇藏细叶芹属 Chaerophyllopsis 1
明党参属 Changium 1
川明参属 Chuanminshen 1
环根芹属 Cyclorhiza 2
马蹄芹属 Dickinsia 1
细裂芹属 Harrysmithia 2
紫伞芹属 Melanosciadium 3
羌活属 Notopterygium 6
舟瓣芹属 Sinolimprichtia 1
夹竹桃科 Apocynaceae 秦岭藤属 Biondia 13
金凤藤属 Dolichopetalum 1
富宁藤属 Parepigynum 1
白水藤属 Pentastelma 1
四川藤属 Sichuania 1
裂冠藤属 Sinomarsdenia 1
五加科 Araliaceae 华参属 Sinopanax 1
通脱木属 Tetrapanax 1
马兜铃科 Aristolochiaceae 马蹄香属 Saruma 1
天门冬科 Asparagaceae 鹭鸶草属 Diuranthera 4
异黄精属 Heteropolygonatum 5
白穗花属 Speirantha 1
菊科 Asteraceae 画笔菊属 Ajaniopsis 1
滇麻花头属 Archiserratula 1
球菊属 Bolocephalus 1
歧笔菊属 Dicercoclados 1
重羽菊属 Diplazoptilon 1
花佩菊属 Faberia 7
复芒菊属 Formania 1
海南菊属 Hainanecio 1
异裂菊属 Heteroplexis 5
假橐吾属 Ligulariopsis 1
蚂蚱腿子属 Myripnois 1
栌菊木属 Nouelia 1
太行菊属 Opisthopappus 1
虾须草属 Sheareria 1
华蟹甲属 Sinacalia 4
君范菊属 Sinoleontopodium 1
合头菊属 Syncalathium 5
黄缨菊属 Xanthopappus 1
桦木科 Betulaceae 虎榛子属 Ostryopsis 3
紫草科 Boraginaceae 长蕊斑种草属 Antiotrema 1
颈果草属 Metaeritrichium 1
皿果草属 Omphalotrigonotis 2
车前紫草属 Sinojohnstonia 3
十字花科 Brassicaceae 白马芥属 Baimashania 2
穴丝荠属 Coelonema 1
蛇头荠属 Dipoma 1
半脊荠属 Hemilophia 5
董叶芥属 Neomartinella 3
宽框荠属 Platycraspedum 2
香格里拉芥属 Shangrilaia 1
华羽芥属 Sinosophiopsis 3
连蕊芥属 Synstemon 2
腊梅科 Calycanthaceae 蜡梅属 Chimonanthus 6
桔梗科 Campanulaceae 刺萼参属 Echinocodon 1
大麻科 Cannabaceae 青檀属 Pteroceltis 1
忍冬科 Caprifoliaceae 双盾木属 Dipelta 3
七子花属 Heptacodium 1
蝟实属 Kolkwitzia 1
石竹科 Caryophyllaceae 金铁锁属 Psammosilene 1
假卷耳属 Pseudocerastium 1
卫矛科 Celastraceae 永瓣藤属 Monimopetalum 1
星叶草科 Circaeasteraceae 独叶草属 Kingdonia 1
山茱萸科 Cornaceae 喜树属 Camptotheca 2
珙桐属 Davidia 1
白玉簪科 Corsiaceae 白玉簪属 Corsiopsis 1
景天科 Crassulaceae 孔岩草属 Kungia 2
岷江景天属 Ohbaea 1
葫芦科 Cucurbitaceae 假贝母属 Bolbostemma 2
岩梅科 Diapensiaceae 岩匙属 Berneuxia 1
杜仲科 Eucommiaceae 杜仲属 Eucommia 1
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 地构叶属 Speranskia 2
豆科 Fabaceae 冬麻豆属 Salweenia 2
龙胆科 Gentianaceae 匙叶草属 Latouchea 1
辐花属 Lomatogoniopsis 3
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 异唇苣苔属 Allocheilos 2
异片苣苔属 Allostigma 1
直瓣苣苔属 Ancylostemon 15
四数苣苔属 Bournea 2
筒花苣苔属 Briggsiopsis 1
扁蒴苣苔属 Cathayanthe 1
小花苣苔属 Chiritopsis 14
瑶山苣苔属 Dayaoshania 1
全唇苣苔属 Deinocheilos 2
双片苣苔属 Didymostigma 3
长檐苣苔属 Dolicholoma 1
圆唇苣苔属 Gyrocheilos 4
圆果苣苔属 Gyrogyne 1
金盏苣苔属 Isometrum 15
细筒苣苔属 Lagarosolen 6
凹柱苣苔属 Litostigma 2
单座苣苔属 Metabriggsia 2
盾叶苣苔属 Metapetrocosmea 1
弥勒苣苔属 Paraisometrum 1
方鼎苣苔属 Paralagarosolen 1
石山苣苔属 Petrocodon 4
报春苣苔属 Primulina 32
世纬苣苔属 Tengia 1
辐花苣苔属 Thamnocharis 1
短檐苣苔属 Tremacron 7
异叶苣苔属 Whytockia 7
金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 山铜材属 Chunia 1
牛鼻栓属 Fortunearia 1
山白树属 Sinowilsonia 1
金丝桃科 Hypericaceae 惠林花属 Lianthus 1
仙茅科 Hypoxidaceae 华仙茅属 Sinocurculigo 1
胡桃科 Juglandaceae 青钱柳属 Cyclocarya 1
唇形科 Lamiaceae 毛药花属 Bostrychanthera 2
四轮香属 Hanceola 8
异野芝麻属 Heterolamium 1
全唇花属 Holocheila 1
动蕊花属 Kinostemon 3
斜萼草属 Loxocalyx 2
喜雨草属 Ombrocharis 1
钩子木属 Rostrinucula 2
四棱草属 Schnabelia 2
葶花属 Skapanthus 1
保亭花属 Wenchengia 1
木通科 Lardizabalaceae 长萼木通属 Archakebia 1
串果藤属 Sinofranchetia 1
樟科 Lauraceae 孔药楠属 Sinopora 1
华檫木属 Sinosassafras 1
野牡丹科 Melastomataceae 棱果花属 Barthea 1
药囊花属 Cyphotheca 1
卷花丹属 Scorpiothyrsus 3
长穗花属 Styrophyton 1
虎颜花属 Tigridiopalma 1
芭蕉科 Musaceae 地涌金莲属 Musella 1
铁青树科 Olacaceae 蒜头果属 Malania 1
兰科 Orchidaceae 独花兰属 Changnienia 2
丹霞兰属 Danxiaorchis 1
双蕊兰属 Diplandrorchis 1
冷兰属 Frigidorchis 1
香兰属 Haraella 1
瘦房兰属 Ischnogyne 1
象鼻兰属 Nothodoritis 1
倒吊兰属 Pendulorchis 1
孔唇兰属 Porolabium 1
心启兰属 Singchia 1
反唇兰属 Smithorchis 1
金佛山兰属 Tangtsinia 1
长喙兰属 Tsaiorchis 1
丫瓣兰属 Ypsilorchis 1
列当科 Orobanchaceae 五齿萼属 Pseudobartsia 1
翅茎草属 Pterygiella 5
马松嵩属 Xizangia 1
罂粟科 Papaveraceae 血水草属 Eomecon 1
车前科 Plantaginaceae 地黄属 Rehmannia 6
细穗玄参属 Scrofella 1
呆白菜属 Triaenophora 3
禾本科 Poaceae 绿竹属 Dendrocalamopsis 1
铁竹属 Ferrocalamus 2
贡山竹属 Gaoligongshania 1
短枝竹属 Gelidocalamus 9
刺毛头黍属 Setiacis 1
三蕊草属 Sinochasea 1
蓼科 Polygonaceae 翅果蓼属 Parapteropyrum 1
翼蓼属 Pteroxygonum 1
报春花科 Primulaceae 羽叶点地梅属 Pomatosace 1
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 罂粟莲花属 Anemoclema 1
露蕊乌头属 Gymnaconitum 1
毛茛莲花属 Metanemone 1
尾囊草属 Urophysa 2
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 无尾果属 Coluria 4
牛筋条属 Dichotomanthes 1
太行花属 Taihangia 1
茜草科 Rubiaceae 香果树属 Emmenopterys 1
宽昭木属 Foonchewia 1
桂海木属 Guihaiothamnus 1
丁茜属 Trailliaedoxa 1
芸香科 Rutaceae 裸芸香属 Psilopeganum 1
无患子科 Sapindaceae 金钱槭属 Dipteronia 2
伞花木属 Eurycorymbus 1
掌叶木属 Handeliodendron 1
虎耳草科 Saxifragaceae 独根草属 Oresitrophe 1
变豆叶草属 Saniculiphyllum 1
玄参科 Scrophulariaceae 虾子草属 Mimulicalyx 2
茄科 Solanaceae 天蓬子属 Atropanthe 1
马尿泡属 Przewalskia 1
安息香科 Styracaceae 陀螺果属 Melliodendron 1
秤锤树属 Sinojackia 8
瘿椒树科 Tapisciaceae 瘿椒树属 Tapiscia 2
山茶科 Theaceae 圆籽荷属 Apterosperma 1
猪血木属 Euryodendron 1
荨麻科 Urticaceae 征镒麻属 Zhengyia 1
翡若翠科 Velloziaceae 芒苞草属 Acanthochlamys 1
姜科 Zingiberaceae 苞叶姜属 Pyrgophyllum 1
蒺藜科 Zygophyllaceae 四合木属 Tetraena 1
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