生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 334-342.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09030

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不同稻作年限下土壤微生物学性质和线虫群落特征的变化

刘雨迪1, 陈小云1, 刘满强1, *(), 秦江涛2, 李辉信1, 胡锋1   

  1. 1 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院土壤生态实验室, 南京 210095
    2 中国科学院南京土壤研究所, 南京 210008
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-30 接受日期:2013-03-28 出版日期:2013-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘满强 E-mail:liumq@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(30900210)、中央高校基本科研业务费(KYZ201207)和江苏高校优势学科建设工程(PAPD)

Changes in soil microbial properties and nematode assemblage over time during rice cultivation

Yudi Liu1, Xiaoyun Chen1, Manqiang Liu1, *(), Jiangtao Qin2, Huixin Li1, Feng Hu1   

  1. 1 Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
    2 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
  • Received:2013-01-30 Accepted:2013-03-28 Online:2013-05-20
  • Contact: Liu Manqiang E-mail:liumq@njau.edu.cn

红壤地区旱地改水田后随稻作年限的增加土壤性质会发生改变, 但缺乏对百年尺度内土壤动物群落特征变化的了解。本研究选取了旱改水后1 yr、10 yr、20 yr、50 yr和100 yr五个时序的田块, 研究了稻作土壤微生物学性质及线虫群落特征的变化。结果表明, 随着稻作年限的延长, 土壤微生物生物量碳氮、基础呼吸、矿质氮、速效磷、线虫数量及线虫属数均随稻作时间增长而逐渐上升, 在50 yr均达到显著水平(P<0.05), 在50-100 yr变化渐缓或有所下降。线虫群落中植食者的比例显著上升(P<0.05), 捕食/杂食者的比例有所下降但差异不显著。线虫通道指数也随稻作年限的增加而逐渐增长(P<0.05), 表明土壤食物网结构趋向于细菌通道。稻作年限对线虫群落成熟度指数和结构指数的影响并不一致。总之, 土壤微生物学性质和线虫群落在旱改水50 yr时土壤各项性质均达到较高水平, 随稻作年限的继续延长呈现稳定趋势。

关键词: 稻田, 耕作年限, 土壤微生物学性质, 线虫群落

The properties of red soil may change over time when paddy fields are developed on what was previously dry land. The effect of rice cultivation duration on soil invertebrates is unknown. Five chronosequences of rice cultivation (1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years) were selected to investigate the temporal changes of soil microbiological properties and nematode assemblages. The results showed that soil microbial properties (microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, basal respiration), nutrient availability (mineral N and P), nematode abundance and richness of nematode genera generally increased with the duration of rice cultivation. Notably, most soil measurements peaked after 50 years of cultivation (P<0.05) and decreased slightly after 100 years. As the period of rice cultivation increased, the proportion of nematode herbivores rose significantly (P< 0.05), while that of predators/omnivores slightly declined. Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR) also increased with cultivation duration (P< 0.05), indicating that the bacterial energy channel was more dominant in old rice fields when compared to those cultivated for a shorter period. Other ecological indices of nematode assemblage such as maturity index and structure index, did not reveal consistent trends with an increased period of rice cultivation. In summary, a change in land use from dry land to paddy fields promotes soil microbial properties and nematode assemblages in the first few decades, which then become stable after 50 years of cultivation.

Key words: rice paddy, cultivation duration, soil microbiolgical property, nematode assemblage

图1

不同稻作年限对土壤微生物生物量碳(A), 微生物生物量氮(B), 微生物生物量磷(C), 基础呼吸(D), 微生物代谢熵(E), 矿质氮(F), 速效磷(G)和线虫数量(H)的影响(不同小写字母表示差异达到显著水平, P<0.05)"

表1

不同稻作年限对土壤各类群线虫比例的影响(平均值±标准误,百分比)"

食性
Feeding habit
属名
Genera
缩写
Abbr.
c-p
c-p value
耕作年限 Cultivation duration
1 yr 10 yr 20 yr 50 yr 100 yr
植食者 短体属 Pratylenchus Prat. 3 4.3 ± 0.6 0.0 0.0 1.8 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.5
Herbivor 矮化属 Tylenchorhynchus Tyl. 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 ± 1.1 0.0
螺旋属 Helicotylenchus Heli. 3 4.8 ± 0.6 0.0 1.5 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 0.6 0.0
潜根属 Hirschmanniella Hirs. 3 12.7 ± 1.7 25.9 ± 3.0 32.2 ± 0.9 28.1 ± 6.3 34.3 ± 4.6
盘旋属 Rotylenchus Roty. 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 ± 1.5 0.0
丝尾属 Oxydirus Oxyd. 5 1.9 ± 0.6 0.0 0.5 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.3
食细菌者 小杆属 Rhabditis Rhab. 1 0.0 1.3 ± 0.6 0.0 1.3 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 0.3
Bacterivor 中杆属 Mesorhabditis Mesr. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 ± 0.8
原杆属 Protorhaditis Prot. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.3
头叶属 Cephalobus Ceph. 2 13.2 ± 1.1 22.1 ± 1.4 20.2 ± 0.9 25.0 ± 3.1 15.5 ± 2.2
鹿角唇属 Cervidellus Cerv. 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3 0.0
真头叶属 Eucephalobus Euce. 2 3.2 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.8 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3 0.0
绕线属 Plectus Ple. 2 2.4 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 0.7 12.4 ± 4.4
连胃属 Chronogaster Chr. 2 2.0 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.4 3.9 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.5
棱咽属 Prismatolaimus Pris. 2 0.0 0.0 0.5 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.6 0.0
单宫属 Monhystera Monh. 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3
无咽属 Alaimus Alai. 4 2.0 ± 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
食真菌者 滑刃属 Aphelenchoides Aphe. 2 2.9 ± 0.6 10.2 ± 1.2 6.8 ± 1.3 0.3 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.3
Fungivor 真滑刃属 Aphelenchus Aph. 2 0.0 1.8 ± 1.1 0.0 0.3 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.3
丝尾垫刃属 Filenchus Fil. 2 7.6 ± 1.0 9.6 ± 1.5 18.9 ± 0.4 8.5 ± 3.0 3.9 ± 1.0
茎属 Ditylenchus Dity. 2 3.1 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.9 0.0 4.4 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 1.0
捕食/杂食者 三孔属 Tripyla Trip. 3 0.8 ± 0.8 1.6 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 0.3 2.7 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.7
Omnivores/predator 托布利属 Tobrilus Tobr. 3 0.0 2.7 ± 0.3 2.6 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.8 6.9 ± 3.5
真矛线属 Eudorylaimus Eudo. 4 2.3 ± 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 ± 0.3 0.0
中矛线属 Mesodorylaimus Meso. 4 24.1 ± 2.8 4.3 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 1.3 10.1 ± 4.3
矛线属 Dorylaimus Dor. 4 12.1 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 1.1 0.3 ± 0.3
拱唇属 Labronema Labr. 4 0.0 0.0 0.8 ± 0.5 0.0 0.0
基齿属 Iotonchus Ioto. 4 0.0 1.4 ± 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0
拟桑尼属 Thorneella Tho. 4 0.0 2.4 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.5 0.0
拟矛线属 Dorylaimoides Dory. 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 ± 0.4 0.0 0.0
孔咽属 Aporcelaimus Apor. 5 0.0 2.4 ± 0.7 0.0 0.0 2.3 ± 0.8
前矛线属 Prodorylaimus Prod. 5 0.5 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 1.1 0.0 2.1 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 1.2
线虫属数
Total nematode taxa
17 19 16 25 20

表2

不同稻作年限对土壤线虫群落营养类群组成和生态指数的影响(平均值±标准误, 不同小写字母表示差异达到显著水平, P<0.05)"

耕作年限
Cultivation
duration
各营养类群占总体的百分比% 成熟度指数 结构指数 通道指数
植食者
PP
食细菌者
BF
食真菌者
FF
捕食/杂食者
OP
Maturity
index
Structure
index
Nematode
channel ratio
1 yr 23.8 ± 1.5c 22.8 ± 1.4b 13.6 ± 2.2b 39.8 ± 2.4a 2.2 ± 0.1a 85.5 ± 1.1a 0.6 ± 0.1bc
10 yr 25.9 ± 3.0bc 29.6 ± 2.9ab 25.2 ± 3.7a 19.4 ± 2.9bc 1.6 ± 0.1b 63.2 ± 4.3bc 0.5 ± 0.1c
20 yr 34.3 ± 1.6ab 27.2 ± 0.7ab 25.7 ± 1.5a 12.8 ± 0.8c 1.1 ± 0.0d 55.2 ± 1.1c 0.5 ± 0.0c
50 yr 38.9 ± 4.1a 33.6 ± 3.4a 13.4 ± 3.2b 14.2 ± 1.5bc 1.3 ± 0.1cd 59.4 ± 0.6bc 0.7 ± 0.1ab
100 yr 38.6 ± 3.8a 30.1 ± 4.0ab 7.5 ± 1.3b 23.8 ± 5.6b 1.6 ± 0.2bc 69.9 ± 7.8b 0.8 ± 0.0a

图2

土壤线虫群落组成与土壤因子之间相关性的冗余分析(RDA)排序图。▲ 稻作年限; → 环境因子; …→ 线虫属名; AP: 速效磷; BR: 基础呼吸; MBC: 微生物生物量碳; MBN: 微生物生物量氮; MBP: 微生物生物量磷; MN: 矿质氮; qCO2: 微生物代谢熵; 线虫属名见表1。"

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