生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (3): 376-385.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10034

所属专题: 传粉生物学:理论探讨与初步实践

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

红姜花(姜科)同步大量开花的适应意义

高江云1*, 盛春玲1, 2, 杨淑霞1, 2   

  1. 1中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303
    2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-30 修回日期:2012-04-16 出版日期:2012-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 高江云 E-mail:gjy@xtbg.org.cn
  • 基金项目:

    国家自然科学基金项目

Adaptive significance of mass-flowering in Hedychium coccineum (Zingiberaceae)

Jiangyun Gao1*, Chunling Sheng1, 2, ShuxiaYang1, 2   

  1. 1Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303

    2Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2012-01-30 Revised:2012-04-16 Online:2012-05-20
  • Contact: Jiangyun Gao E-mail:gjy@xtbg.org.cn

两性花植物同步大量开花增加了个体花展示大小, 能吸引更多的传粉者, 使植株获得更多的交配机会, 但也不可避免地带来不同程度的同株异花授粉, 进而对被子植物的性资源分配、花部性状以及雌雄异株的进化等产生重要的影响。本文以姜科红姜花(Hedychium coccineum)为研究对象, 通过人工授粉和操控试验、传粉动物的观察、自然结果率和自然居群的大小和密度的调查, 探讨红姜花同步大量开花的适应意义。结果表明: (1)红姜花的穗状花序由57.33 ± 1.68(n = 30)个蝎尾状聚伞小花序组成, 每个小花序具3.8 ± 0.15(n = 30)朵花, 同一花序上所有的小花序同步开花, 不同小花序内的花按轮次同步开放, 使花序在整个开花期间保持有数十朵花同时开放, 花序水平上的花展示极为显著; (2)红姜花为自交亲和植物, 但不存在自动自花授粉, 自然居群存在严重的传粉者限制, 其结实也存在着资源限制; (3)多型蓝凤蝶(Papilio memnon)、小矩翅粉蝶(Dercas lycorias)和黑角尖翅粉蝶云南亚种(Appias indra aristoxemus)是红姜花的有效传粉者, 3种蝴蝶对红姜花不同大小花序的访问频率都显著不同, 随着花序花展示大小的增加其访问频率也显著增加; (4)红姜花同一个体小花序内不同轮次花之间的胚珠数随轮次显著减少, 而花粉数前3轮随轮次显著增加。胚珠数的递减及结实存在着资源限制, 说明红姜花一个花序开大量的花并不是为了增加结实, 而花粉数前3轮的递增, 有利于花粉的分散输出, 提高个体的雄性适合度。

Hermaphroditic plants that simultaneously display multiple flowers may attract more pollinators and create more chances for mating. However, this may also lead to geitonogamy, which may have major impacts on evolution of sex allocation, floral characteristics, and dioecy. To explore adaptive significance of mass-flowering in Hedychium coccineum, we conducted studies on pollination biology of H. coccineum, via hand-pollination and manipulated experiments, pollinator observation, and investigations on population density and natural fruit sets. Overall, inflorescences of H. coccineum were composed of terminal spikes containing 57.33 ± 1.68 (n = 30) cincinnus, and each cincinnus possessed 3.8 ± 0.15 (n = 30) flowers. Flowers in each cincinnus opened in turn, and the same round flowers among each cincinnus within inflorescences opened in successive synchronous cycles. This provided a spike that kept a mass of flowers blooming simultaneously throughout the flowering period. H. coccineum displayed a large floral display at the inflorescence level. Additionally, H. coccineum was self-compatible, and spontaneous self-pollination did not occur. Fruit production of H. coccineum in natural populations was severely pollinator-limited. Meanwhile, H. coccineum was also resource-limited in fruit production. Three butterflies, Papilio memnon, Dercas lycorias, and Appias indra aristoxemus were effective pollinators of H. coccineum. Visiting frequencies of these butterfly species to three inflorescences with different floral display size were obviously different and visitation frequencies increased as the inflorescence increased in floral display size. Pollen grains and ovules of H. coccineum varied significantly among flowers of different rounds in the cincinnus. Ovule production decreased significantly from the first to the fourth round, but pollen grains increased significantly from the first round to the third round. The decrease in ovules and resource limitation in fruit production indicated that mass-flowering in H. coccineum was not for increasing fruit production. The increase in pollen grains from the first round to the third round benefits pollen export and increases male fitness.

No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed