生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (6): 570-577.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08049

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同种源的葡萄种子休眠及其解除的研究

甘阳英1,2, 李绍华1, 宋松泉1, 王伟青1, 程红焱1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所, 北京 100093)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 出版日期:2008-11-20 发布日期:2008-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 程红焱

Seed dormancy and release of grapes from different proveniences

Yangying Gan1,2, Shaohua Li1, Songquan Song1, Weiqing Wang1, Hongyan Cheng1*   

  1. 1 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2008-11-20 Published:2008-11-20
  • Contact: Hongyan Cheng

摘要: 为探讨葡萄种子休眠与解除的规律, 我们选择起源于东亚、北美–中美、欧洲–中亚3个分布中心的不同种类及其杂种的20个品种, 研究了它们成熟种子的外部形态与萌发行为, 种子的休眠特性与休眠解除的方法, 并模拟四季温度的交替变化研究了环境温度对种子休眠的影响。结果表明, 不同起源的各类葡萄种子的休眠类型均为生理休眠, 但其休眠程度不同, 休眠解除方式也存在差异。其中欧亚种和东亚种的种子休眠较浅, 美洲种种子休眠较深; 杂交种比亲本所属类别的种子休眠程度浅。对于欧亚种、东亚种及其杂交种(欧山杂种)而言, 5ºC冷层积和变温层积(即20ºC (14 h) /10ºC (10 h)和30ºC (14 h) /20ºC (10 h))2个月能够有效地或部分解除它们的种子休眠; 但对美洲种和欧美杂种而言, 仅5ºC冷层积且层积时间需要延长至6个月才能解除其休眠, 变温层积和25ºC暖层积都不能解除休眠。四季温度的交替变化模拟实验进一步证明了不同起源的葡萄种子的休眠程度不同。这些休眠特性及其解除方式反映了不同起源葡萄种类的环境适应性。本文研究结果为葡萄资源的引种和育种提供了参考数据。

Abstract: To investigate dormancy and release mechanisms of grape seeds, we compared seed morphological characteristics and germination behavior of different grape varieties and their dormancy release under different conditions including an alternative temperature change simulation for a season cycle. The grape va-rieties tested included species introduced from three distribution centers (America, Europe-Asia and East-Asia) and their cross breeds. Seed dormancy of all varieties was attributed to physiological dormancy, but varied in degree of dormancy. The dormancy-releasing requirements of different varieties also differed, correlating to their genetic backgrounds. As a whole, seeds of Europe-Asia species and East-Asia species ex-hibited a lower degree of dormancy, compared to a relatively high degree of dormancy for American species. For Europe-Asia species, East-Asia species and their cross breeds, seed dormancy was effectively broken by cold stratification (5ºC) and partially broken by alternative temperature stratification viz. 20ºC (14 h) /10ºC (10 h) and 30ºC (14 h) /20ºC (10 h) for two months. As for American species and cross breeds with Europe-Asia species, seed dormancy could only be broken by more than six-month cold stratification; neither alternative temperature stratification nor warm stratification (25ºC) affected seed dormancy release. Experi-ments simulating seasonal alternative changes further showed that seed dormancy degrees were related to their proveniences and adaptations to environment. Our results provide basic data for germplasm introduction and breeding of grapes.