生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 734-748.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020005

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家马的驯化起源与遗传演化特征

陶克涛,韩海格,赵若阳,图格琴,芒来(),白东义()   

  1. 内蒙古农业大学动物科学学院内蒙古自治区马属动物遗传育种与繁殖重点实验室, 呼和浩特 010018
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-06 接受日期:2020-03-23 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-05-15
  • 通讯作者: 芒来,白东义
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31960657);国家自然科学基金(31860636);国家自然科学基金(31902188);国家自然科学基金(31360538);国家自然科学基金(31472070);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFE0108700);内蒙古自治区自然科学基金重大项目(2017ZD06);内蒙古自治区自然科学基金(2019MS03064)

The origins and genetic characteristics of domestic horses

Togtokh Mongke,Haige Han,Ruoyang Zhao,Tugeqin Bao,Manglai Dugarjaviin(),Dongyi Bai()   

  1. Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Equus Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018
  • Received:2020-01-06 Accepted:2020-03-23 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-05-15
  • Contact: Manglai Dugarjaviin,Dongyi Bai

摘要:

人类文明发展历史中, 家马(Equus ferus caballus)曾是推动文化交流、促进人类社会发展的主要动力。关于家马何时、何地被驯化以及在此过程中其遗传演化如何被人类影响等一直备受关注。近年来随着遗传学技术的发展, 人们对该问题有了更为深入的理解。本文回顾了近二十年来相关研究所取得的成果, 探讨了家马的驯化起源中心和驯化过程中的遗传演化特征, 并对未来的研究方向以及遗传资源保护提出了建议。分子标记遗传学和考古学研究认为家马可能来自多个驯化起源地种群, 然而最近的古DNA研究结果表明, 现代家马的驯化起源可能比之前人们所猜测的更加复杂, 古代博泰马被认为是最早被驯化的家马, 然而最近被证实并不是现代家马的直系祖先。如此复杂的驯化问题可能从多学科的层次才能解析清楚。人类社会活动直接或间接影响了家马的演化历程, 特别是工业革命以来家马的遗传基础发生了巨大变化, 其遗传多样性开始急剧衰退, 不少地方品种正逐渐走向衰落甚至灭绝。为确保农业生态安全不受威胁, 建议加强家马遗传资源保护与动物遗传学和文化地理之间的联系研究。

关键词: 家马, 驯化起源, 遗传演化, 人工选育, 遗传资源保护

Abstract:

Throughout human history, the horse (Equus ferus caballus) was often involved in cultural exchanges and the development of various human societies. Human activities has directly and indirectly impacted the evolution of domestic horses, especially since the industrial revolution. There has been extensive research into when horses were originally domesticated and how humans impacted horse’s genetic evolution during domestication. Recent developments in genomic technology has advanced our understand of horse genetic evolution. This review summarizes the results of the last 20 years of research on the domestication origins and genetic evolution of domestic horses, as well what is currently known about domestication centers and evolution characteristics of domestication. We also suggest avenues for future research directions and genetic conservation strategies. Molecular markers from genetic and archaeological research suggest that domestic horses may have originated from multiple populations. However, ancient DNA studies indicate a more complicated genetic history than previously thought, as the believed Botai ancestor to all domesticated horses has been disproven as the direct ancestor of modern domestic horses. To address these types of complex scenarios may need a multi-disciplinary framework to understanding the horse domestication. Human activities have shaped the evolution of modern domestic, driving both demographic collapse and low genetic diversity, especially, since the industrial revolution. A number of indigenous horse breeds are gradually declining and are becoming extinct. Therefore, in order to ensure that agricultural safety, we suggest strengthening the researches on the relationship between protection of equine genetic resources, animal genetics and cultural geography.

Key words: domestic horses, domestic origins, genetic evolution, artificial selection, genetic resources conservation