生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (11): 1161-1168.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017249

• 《生物多样性公约》履约专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

“爱知生物多样性目标”国家评估指标的对比研究及对策建议

戴蓉*(), 吴翼   

  1. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-13 接受日期:2017-11-16 出版日期:2017-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 戴蓉 E-mail:dairong@nies.org
  • 基金项目:
    中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(20160402)、江苏省自然科学基金-青年基金项目(BK20160103)、中国-韩国环境合作联委会项目(20-K1)和环境保护部“生物多样性保护专项”

A comparative study on national assessment indicators for Aichi Biodiversity Targets and relevant countermeasures

Rong Dai*(), Yi Wu   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2017-09-13 Accepted:2017-11-16 Online:2017-11-20
  • Contact: Dai Rong E-mail:dairong@nies.org

“爱知生物多样性目标”(简称“爱知目标”)的实现有助于大幅减缓全球、区域和国家水平上的生物多样性丧失速度和应对可持续发展面临的挑战。将“爱知目标”框架下制定的国家评估指标纳入“国家生物多样性战略与行动计划”和“国家报告”是国家层面上履约的重要行动之一。本文以“爱知目标”为框架, 对其关注点进行梳理, 并分析其间的联系。以每个关注点为对比基础, 以欧盟、澳大利亚、德国、印度、巴西、南非、日本和中国为研究对象, 对各国“爱知目标”关注点采取的相关指标及行动进行对比分析, 识别我国现存相关指标的薄弱环节。结果表明: 公众参与(1-2), 生物多样性价值评估(2-1), 生物多样性主流化(2-2), 消除、淘汰或改革有害生物多样性奖励措施(3-1), 补贴政策(3-2), 污染对生物多样性的影响(8-2), 连通性(11-4), 《名古屋议定书》的执行(16-1), 传统知识的保护(18-1)和传统知识拥有者的权利和参与及保障(18-2)和国外官方发展援助的财政资源(20-2)等关注点目前缺乏相关的评估指标。可持续消费(4-2), 生境丧失、退化和破碎化(5-1), 可持续渔业(6-2), 农林渔业对生物多样性的影响(7-2), 气候变化对珊瑚礁的影响(10-1)和管理成效评估(11-3)等关注点暂未有足够的数据进行评估。通过分析以上国家相关指标设定和相关行动的经验以及我国存在的问题, 我们提出以下建议: (1)进一步完善我国评估指标体系; (2)加快调整不利于生物多样性保护的政策; (3)开展传统知识及惠益分享议题的定量化研究; (4)开展公众科学活动, 提高公众参与能力。

关键词: 爱知生物多样性目标, 关注点, 指标与行动, 对比研究, 对策建议

The implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (hereinafter referred to as the “Aichi Targets”) is conducive to a significant decrease in the rate of biodiversity loss at global, regional and national levels and addresses sustainable development challenges. Incorporating national indicators set under the framework of the Aichi Targets into a national biodiversity strategy, action plan, and national report are important actions for implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity at the national level. Using the Aichi Targets as the framework, this paper teases out the challenges of its targets and analyzes relationships among these concerns. By comparing each concern and using European Union, Australia, Germany, India, Brazil, South Africa, Japan, and China as study areas, this paper compares and analyzes the indicators and actions relating to concerns of the Aichi Targets, thus identifying and analyzing weak links in China’s existing relevant indicators. The results showed that the concerns without relevant assessment indicators are as follows: public participation (1-2), biodiversity valuation (2-1), mainstreaming biodiversity (2-2), subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated or reformed (3-1), subsidy policy (3-2), impacts of pollution on biodiversity (8-2), connectivity (11-4), implementation of the Nagoya Protocol (16-1), protection of traditional knowledge (18-1), traditional knowledge owners’ rights and participation (18-2) and foreign official financial resources for development (20-2). The concerns that there are no enough data to be used to assess the indicators are as follows: sustainable consumption (4-2), habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation (5-1), sustainable fisheries (6-2), impacts of agriculture, forestry and fishery on biodiversity (7-2), climate change impacts on coral reefs (10-1) and management effectiveness of protected areas (11-3). By analyzing individual country experiences of relevant indicators and actions as well as issues in China, we provide the following recommendations: (1) To perfect the assessment indicator system in China; (2) To accelerate policy adjustments for those that are not favorable to biodiversity conservation; (3) To carry out quantitative studies on traditional knowledge and benefit-sharing issues; and (4) To carry out scientific activities for citizens that enhance public participation.

Key words: Aichi Biodiversity Targets, concerns, indicators and actions, comparative study, countermeasures

表1

爱知目标关注点分析"

战略目标
Strategic goal
目标
Target
爱知目标关注点
Concerns of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
有助于推动其他
目标的实现
Contribute
to other targets
A 1 公众意识 Public awareness (1-1)
公众参与 Public participation (1-2)
2, 3, 4, 15, 19
2 生物多样性价值评估 Biodiversity valuation (2-1)
生物多样性主流化 Mainstreaming biodiversity (2-2)
4, 5, 6, 7, 19
3 消除、淘汰或改革有害生物多样性奖励措施 Subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated or reformed (3-1)
补贴政策 Subsidy policy (3-2)
2, 4, 6, 7, 17
4 可持续生产 Sustainable production (4-1)
可持续消费 Sustainable consumption (4-2)
1, 3, 6, 7, 19
B 5 生境丧失、退化和破碎化 Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation (5-1) 1, 3, 4, 11, 18, 19
6 水域生态环境修复 Aquatic environment restoration (6-1)
可持续渔业 Sustainable fisheries (6-2)
耗竭物种的恢复计划 Recovery plans and measures for all depleted species (6-3)
3, 5, 10, 11, 12, 18
7 农业、水产养殖业、林业可持续管理 Sustainable agriculture, aquaculture, forestry management (7-1)
农林渔业对生物多样性的影响 Impacts of agriculture, forestry and fishery on biodiversity (7-2)
1, 4, 5, 8, 13, 14, 15
8 污染物趋势 Pollutants trends (8-1)
污染对生物多样性的影响 Impacts of pollution on biodiversity (8-2)
5, 7, 11, 14, 15
9 外来入侵物种的趋势 Trends of invasive alien species (9-1)
外来入侵物种造成的生物多样性损失 Loss of biodiversity caused by invasive alien species (9-2)
预防或控制外来入侵物种的政策或措施 Prevention and control policies or measures of invasive alien species (9-3)
1, 19
10 气候变化对珊瑚礁的影响 Climate change impacts on coral reefs (10-1)
气候变化对其他脆弱生态系统的影响 Climate change impacts on other fragile ecosystems (10-2)
6, 8, 11, 14
C 11 陆地与内陆水域及沿海与海洋保护区建设 Protected areas on terrestrial and inland water areas, and coastal and marine areas (11-1)
具有特殊生态系统服务重要性区域 Especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity (11-2)
管理成效评估 Management effectiveness of protected areas (11-3)
连通性 Connectivity (11-4)
17, 18
12 已知濒危物种灭绝的趋势 The extinction of known threatened species (12-1)
防止物种濒危和灭绝 Prevent species endangered and extinction (12-2)
4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19
13 物种遗传多样性保护 Genetic diversity protection (13-1)
保护遗传多样性的措施 Measures on genetic diversity protection (13-2)
1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 13
D 14 生态系统服务恢复和保障 Ecosystem services recovery and protection (14-1)
顾及生计、贫困及弱势群体 Taking livelihoods, poverty, and vulnerable groups into account (14-2)
2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 18, 19
15 生态系统复原力 Ecosystem resilience (15-1) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14
16 《名古屋议定书》的执行 Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol (16-1) 17, 18, 19
E 17 《国家生物多样性战略和行动计划》的制定和执行 Development and implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (17-1) 1, 2, 16, 18
18 传统知识的保护 Protection of traditional knowledge (18-1)
传统知识拥有者的权利和参与及保障 Traditional knowledge owners’ rights and participation (18-2)
1, 11, 17, 19
19 与履行《公约》相关的科技信息 Technical information related to the implementation of the CBD (19-1) 1, 18
20 国内公共支出的财政资源 Domestic financial resources for public expenditure (20-1)
国外官方发展援助的财政资源 Foreign official financial resources for development (20-2)
1, 2, 3, 17
[9] Jing ZP, Ma YX (2012) Dynamic assessment of values of ecosystem services of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. Journal of Central South China University of Forestry Science and Technology, 32(9), 87-93. (in Chinese)
[景兆鹏, 马友鑫 (2012) 云南省西双版纳地区生态系统服务价值的动态评估. 中南林业科技大学学报, 32(9), 87-93.]
[10] Kupika OL, Nhamo G (2016) Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries. Jamba Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 8(3), 1-9.
[11] Lazarus E, Lin D, Martindill J, Hardiman J, Pitney L, Galli A (2015) Biodiversity loss and the ecological footprint of trade. Diversity, 7, 170-191.
[12] Ma KP (2011) Strategic targets for biodiversity conservation in 2011-2020. Biodiversity Science, 19, 1-2. (in Chinese)
[马克平 (2011) 未来十年的生物多样性保护目标. 生物多样性, 19, 1-2.]
[13] Ma KP (2015) New opportunities for mainstreaming biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity Science, 23, 557-558. (in Chinese)
[马克平 (2015) 生物多样性保护主流化的新机遇. 生物多样性, 23, 557-558.]
[14] McGeoch MA, Butchart SHM, Spear D, Marais E, Kleynhans EJ, Symes A, Chanson J, Hoffmann M (2010) Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Diversity and Distributions, 16, 95-108.
[15] Mckinnon MC, Cheng SH, Dupre S, Edmond J, Garside R, Glew L (2016) What are the effects of nature conservation on human well-being? A systematic map of empirical evidence from developing countries. Environmental Evidence, 5, 1-25.
[16] Miller JS (2015) The realized benefits from bioprospecting in the wake of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Washington University Journal of Law & Policy, 47(5), 51-60.
[17] Oliver TH (2016) How much biodiversity loss is too much? Science, 353, 220-221.
[18] Roe D (2015) Mainstreaming biodiversity: conservation for the twenty-first century. Weather, 57, 226-227.
[19] Sandifer PA, Sutton-Grier AE, Ward BP (2015) Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation. Ecosystem Services, 12, 1-15.
[20] UNEP/CBD/SBSTAA (2010) Experiences in the Development of National Biodiversity Indicators. https://www.cbd.int/doc/ meetings/sbstta/sbstta-14/information/sbstta-14-inf-12-en.doc. (accessed on 2017-09-01)
[21] Xu J, Cai L, Wang AH, Xue DY, Yang QW, Li JS, Yin SL (2013) The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations. Biodiversity Science, 21, 127-131. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐靖, 蔡蕾, 王爱华, 薛达元, 杨庆文, 李俊生, 银森录 (2013) 全球多边惠益分享机制: 遗传资源获取和惠益分享谈判的新焦点. 生物多样性, 21, 127-131.]
[22] Xu HG, Ding H, Wu J, Cao MC, Chen L, Le ZF, Cui P (2012) Interpretation of the 2020 Global Biodiversity Targets and its assessment indicators. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 28, 1-9. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐海根, 丁晖, 吴军, 曹铭昌, 陈炼, 乐志芳, 崔鹏 (2012) 2020年全球生物多样性目标解读及其评估指标探讨. 生态与农村环境学报, 28, 1-9.]
[23] Xu HG, Ding H, Ouyang ZY, Zhang WG, Cui P, Xu WH, Liu L, Wu J, Lu XQ, Cao MC, Chen L, Le ZF, Wu Y, Lei JC (2016) Assessing China’s progress toward the 2020 Global Biodiversity Targets.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36, 3847-3858. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐海根, 丁晖, 欧阳志云, 张文国, 崔鹏, 徐卫华, 刘立, 吴军, 卢晓强, 曹铭昌, 陈炼, 乐志芳, 吴翼, 雷军成 (2016) 中国实施 2020 年全球生物多样性目标的进展. 生态学报, 36, 3847-3858.]
[24] Xue DY (2014) On the national regime for access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in China: an enlightenment from coming into force of Nagoya Protocol. Biodiversity Science, 22, 547-548. (in Chinese)
[薛达元 (2014) 建立遗传资源及相关传统知识获取与惠益分享国家制度: 写在《名古屋议定书》生效之际. 生物多样性, 22, 547-548.]
[1] Armsworth PR, Acs S, Dallimer M, Gaston KJ, Hanley N, Wilson P (2012) The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs. Ecology Letters, 15, 406-414.
[2] Bennett EM, Cramer W, Begossi A, Cundill G, Díaz S, Egoh BN (2015) Linking biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being: three challenges for designing research for sustainability. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 14, 76-85.
[3] Billé R, Lapeyre R, Pirard R (2012) Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation: a way out of the deadlock? Sapiens, 5, 1-15.
[4] Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (2014) Global Wild Bird Index (UNEP-WCMC).2014) Global Wild Bird Index (UNEP-WCMC).
[5] Chai LW, Cao XF, Zhang JQ, Huang Y (2015) Trends of the implementation of “Convention on Biological Diversity” after development of “Aichi Targets” and countermeasures. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 31, 7-11. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[柴立伟, 曹晓峰, 张洁清, 黄艺 (2015) “爱知目标”后《生物多样性公约》履约趋势分析和对策. 生态与农村环境学报, 31, 7-11.]
[6] Chappell MJ, Wittman H, Bacon CM, Ferguson BG, Barrios LG, Barrios RG, Jaffee D, Lima J, Méndez VE, Morales H, Soto-Pinto L, Vandermeer J, Perfecto I (2013) Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America. F1000 Research, 2(23), 235.
[7] Diana JS, Egna HS, Chopin T, Peterson MS, Cao L, Pomeroy R, Verdegem M, Slack WT, Bondad-Reantaso MG, Cabello F (2013) Responsible aquaculture in 2050: valuing local conditions and human innovations will be key to success. BioScience, 63, 255-262.
[8] Ding H, Qin WH (2009) Biodiversity Assessment Indicator and Case Study. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[丁晖, 秦卫华 (2009) 生物多样性评估指标及其案例研究. 中国环境科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] 刘文静, 徐靖, 耿宜佳, 田瑜, 银森录. (2018) “2020年后全球生物多样性框架”的谈判进展以及对我国的建议. 生物多样性, 26(12): 1358-1364.
[2] 范边, 马克明. (2015) 全球陆地保护地60年增长情况分析和趋势预测. 生物多样性, 23(4): 507-518.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed