生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (6): 672-685.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015374

• • 上一篇    下一篇

淡水鱼类入侵种的分布、入侵途径、机制与后果

郦珊1,2, 陈家宽2, 王小明1,,A;*()   

  1. 1 (上海科技馆分馆上海自然博物馆自然史研究中心, 上海 2000412 复旦大学生物多样性和生态工程教育部重点实验室, 上海 200438);
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-29 接受日期:2016-05-11 出版日期:2016-06-20 发布日期:2016-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 王小明
  • 基金资助:
    中国博士后科学基金面上资助(2016M590367)

Global distribution, entry routes, mechanisms and consequences of invasive freshwater fish

Shan Li1,2, Jiakuan Chen2, Xiaoming Wang1,*()   

  1. 1 Natural History Research Center, Shanghai Natural History Museum, Branch of Shanghai Science & Technology Museum, Shanghai 200041
    2 Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2015-12-29 Accepted:2016-05-11 Online:2016-06-20 Published:2016-06-20
  • Contact: Wang Xiaoming

摘要:

生物入侵已经成为全球面临的三大环境问题之一。鱼类入侵现象也随全球经济一体化的进程日益严重。本文综述了全球淡水鱼类入侵的现状和研究进展, 包括鱼类入侵的定义及分布、入侵途径和机制、产生的生态和社会经济影响以及预防措施等。据统计, 目前全球外来鱼类达624种, 该数量超过30年前的两倍。外来鱼类主要通过水产养殖(51%)、观赏渔业(21%)、休闲垂钓(12%)、渔业捕捞运输(7%)等多种途径被引进。入侵鱼类对本地种产生了捕食、种内种间竞争、杂交和疾病传播等负面影响, 破坏本地生态系统, 但是其正面的生态及社会经济影响也不可忽略。近20年来全球鱼类入侵日益受到重视, 相关论文发表数量翻了8倍。值得提出的是, 近10年来全球鱼类入侵风险评价系统的研究显著增加, 一些鱼类入侵模型已应用于五大洲的多个国家。我国淡水外来鱼类共计439种。然而, 我国关于鱼类入侵的研究起步较晚, 发表文献数仅占全球的3.7%, 且主要研究方向仍集中在入侵物种的分布及生物学特性等基础研究上, 缺乏对于鱼类入侵机制及风险评价预测的研究。因此, 我们建议: (1)开展全国范围的本底调查并建立数据库, 实现数据共享, 明确鱼类入侵的历史与分布现状; (2)联合多个政府部门和机构, 对鱼类入侵进行长期观测, 从整个水生生态系统的角度出发, 深入了解其入侵机制及其产生的正面和负面生态和社会经济影响; (3)加强增殖放流的科学研究和管理; (4)构建区域性外来鱼类入侵风险评价系统, 有效预测鱼类入侵活动, 评价入侵种的危害, 并为相关政府部门的决策提供科学依据。

关键词: 淡水鱼类入侵, 水产养殖, 观赏渔业, 风险评估

Abstract:

Biological invasion is now considered one of the three major environmental issues worldwide. Freshwater fish invasion becomes more serious with globalization of the world economy. We reviewed the current status of global freshwater fish invasions and discussed the definitions, distributions, introduction pathways, mechanisms, ecological and economic impacts, and risk assessments of freshwater fish invasions. Non-native fish are mainly introduced through food aquaculture (51%), as ornamental fish (21%), or for sport fishing (12%) and fisheries (7%). The number of introduced fish has reached 624 species, doubled the number found thirty years ago. Successful invasions may bring many negative ecological consequences, such as predation, hybridization, structure and function alteration of local freshwater ecosystems, as well as diseases transmission. However, it also brings positive biological and economic values. The number of fish invasion studies has increased eight times over the last 20 years, with studies mainly focusing on biology and the biological impact of invasive fish species. Risk assessments of freshwater fish invasions were studied over the last 10 years, and fish invasiveness screening models have been applied in countries of five continents. The number of non-native freshwater fish in China totaled 439. However, research papers on freshwater fish invasions in China was only 3.7% of the global total, and these researches were mainly on the distribution and biology of invasive fish species, and very few studies included risk assessments. Therefore, we suggest investigating the history, distribution, and mechanisms of invasive species at the national level, evaluating both the positive and negative effects of freshwater fish invasions, and also reinforcing studies of risk assessments in China.

Key words: freshwater fish invasion, food aquaculture, ornamental fish, risk assessment