生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (6): 633-638.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070151

所属专题: 植物与传粉者相互作用

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔落岩黄芪主要传粉蜂的传粉效率研究

蒙艳华, 徐环李*, 陈轩, 蔡青年   

  1. 中国农业大学昆虫学系, 北京 100094
  • 出版日期:2007-11-20

Pollination efficiency of the main bee pollinators of Hedysarum laeve, a legume in Mu Us Sandland, Inner Mongolia

Yanhua Meng, Huanli Xu*, Xuan Chen, Qingnian Cai   

  1. Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094
  • Online:2007-11-20

塔落岩黄芪 (Hedysarum laeve)是毛乌素沙地重要豆科植物, 在我国西部生态系统恢复与重建中起着重要作用, 但其自交率非常低, 必须依靠传粉昆虫授粉才能结实。野生传粉蜂是其主要传粉者。为了明确塔落岩黄芪的主要传粉蜂组成及优势传粉蜂的传粉效率, 2004–2006年, 我们设置了4个2 m×2 m样方观测访花昆虫的组成并对主要传粉蜂的访花频率、花粉移出率和柱头花粉沉降数目及单花停留时间进行了观测。结果表明白脸条蜂(Anthophora albifronella)、海切叶蜂(Megachile maritima)和散熊蜂(Bombus sporsdicus)是塔落岩黄芪的主要传粉蜂, 其中白脸条蜂在数量和访花频率上占有明显优势, 但其花粉移出率比海切叶蜂和散熊蜂的低, 3种蜂的柱头花粉沉降数目没有显著区别。通过对这3种蜂的花粉移出率、柱头花粉沉降数目和访花频率综合分析后, 我们认为白脸条蜂是塔落岩黄芪最有效的传粉蜂。

Hedysarum laeve (Fabaceae) is an important legume for plant ecosystem restoration and reconstruction in Mu Us Sandland, Inner Mongolia. Fruit set is greatly enhanced when pollinators are available in the H. laeve system, since fruit set is stimulated less by spontaneous autogamy. This species is pollinated mainly by wild bees, but there is insufficient information to determine the overall effectiveness or importance of the pollinators. We investigated the composition of bee pollinator species of H. laeve and the pollination efficiency of the dominant ones. The species and numbers of pollinators of H. laeve were investigated in four 2 m×2 m plots in Mu Us Sandland during 2004–2006. We observed visitation frequency of the main pollinators and measured their pollen removal ratio from anthers after a single visit to virgin flowers, pollen deposition on stigmas by a single visit to virgin flowers, and the duration of each visit. The results showed that three bees Anthophora albifronella, Megachile maritima and Bombus sporsdicus were major pollinators, of which A. albifronella was dominant in number and visitation frequency. A. albifronella removed less pollen than M. maritima and B. sporsdicus, but the three bee species deposited similar amounts of pollen on stigmas. We suggest that A. albifronella was the most efficient pollinator for H. laeve according to comparison among the three bees of the amount of pollen removal, the pollen deposition on stigmas, and visitation frequency.

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