生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (1): 8-14.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07094

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

稻田水面漂浮的杂草种子种类及动态

左然玲, 强胜*()   

  1. 南京农业大学杂草研究室, 南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-26 接受日期:2007-07-06 出版日期:2008-01-27 发布日期:2008-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 强胜
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:wrl@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAD09A09);国家自然科学基金(30170164)

Species and dynamics of floating weed seeds in paddy field

Ranling Zuo, Sheng Qiang*()   

  1. Weed Research Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
  • Received:2007-03-26 Accepted:2007-07-06 Online:2008-01-27 Published:2008-01-27
  • Contact: Sheng Qiang

摘要:

为了揭示杂草种子的漂浮动态, 并为探寻生态控草方法提供理论依据, 我们于2005年6-11月, 在南京沧波门稻作区调查了水稻种植前及生长后期田间杂草群落以及稻田灌水期间水面漂浮的杂草种子的种类及漂浮时间。结果表明, 在水稻种植前及生长后期田间出现有15科24种杂草; 可漂浮于水面的杂草种子有17科26种, 与田间发生的杂草种类相同的共有18种, 占所有32种杂草的56.25%。这些杂草主要隶属于禾本科、蓼科、毛茛科、报春花科、莎草科、菊科和雨久花科。田埂附近漂浮的杂草种类及种子数量均高于田中间; 各类杂草种子的漂浮能力不一, 其中菵草(Beckmannia syzigachne)、泽珍珠菜(Lysimachia candida)、茴茴蒜(Ranunculus chinensis)、齿果酸模(Rumex dentatus)、蛇床(Cnidium monnieri)、鳢肠(Eclipta prostrata)和看麦娘(Alopecurus aequalis)等在田间水面漂浮能力较强。漂浮期间杂草种子除多集中于田埂附近, 也附着于稻稞周围, 并有互相结联的趋势。从整体上看, 杂草种子漂浮2天后骤降, 8天后基本全部沉降。显然, 稻田生境的杂草种子大多可以漂浮于水面传播扩散。因此在灌水早期采取过滤或清除水上漂浮杂草种子可以减少杂草种子的输入和加速杂草种子从田间输出, 减少杂草发生基数。

关键词: 杂草种子, 传播扩散, 漂浮动态, 稻田

Abstract:

In order to explore effective methods for weed control in paddy fields, we investigated the dynamics of weed seeds in Nanjing from June to November of 2005. A total of 24 weed species representing 15 families were found before seedling transplanting and at late growth stage of rice, while during irrigation stage, 26 species of 17 families were identified from floating weed seeds. The two stages shared 18 weed species, accounting for 56.25% of the total weeds. Most of them belonged to Gramineae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Primulaceae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, and Pontederiaceae. There were more weed seeds and more species floating at the edge than in the middle of the paddy field. Some weed seeds could float longer, such as Beckmannia syzigachne, Lysimachia candida, Ranunculus chinensis, Rumex dentatus, Cnidium monnieri, and Alopecurus aequalis. Many floating weed seeds aggregated around rice stubble. In general, seeds began to sink abruptly after floating for two days, and most of them fell to the bottom after eight days. It is obvious that weeds in paddy fields can disperse through floating. Therefore, to filtrate water or clean floating weed seeds can help to reduce the seed weed amount so as to control weeds in paddy fields.

Key words: weed seeds, dispersal, floating dynamics, paddy field