生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 332-340.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015288

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盐碱旱地转基因抗虫棉田昆虫群落多样性

雒珺瑜, 张帅, 朱香镇, 王春义, 吕丽敏, 李春花, 崔金杰*()   

  1. 中国农业科学院棉花研究所/棉花生物学国家重点实验室, 河南安阳 455000
  • 收稿日期:2015-10-22 接受日期:2016-01-10 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-04-05
  • 通讯作者: 崔金杰
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31501253)

Insect community diversity in transgenic Bt cotton in saline and dry soils

Junyu Luo, Shuai Zhang, Xiangzhen Zhu, Chunyi Wang, Limin Lü, Chunhua Li, Jinjie Cui*()   

  1. Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences /State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Anyang, Henan 455000
  • Received:2015-10-22 Accepted:2016-01-10 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-04-05
  • Contact: Cui Jinjie

摘要:

棉花是耐干旱和耐盐碱的经济作物。随着土壤的盐碱化和干旱化, 在人口数量和植棉成本剧增的背景下, 我国黄河流域和长江流域棉花种植面积锐减, 棉花种植被迫向滨海盐碱地和内陆及西北干旱地区转移。本文于2013年和2014年在山东东营滨海盐碱地和河北枣强半干旱轻度盐碱地以非转基因棉(‘中棉所49’)为对照, 以转Bt基因棉(‘中棉所79’)为试验材料, 分别作施农药和不施农药处理, 于每年5月初到9月中旬, 调查取样点棉株及地面上害虫及其天敌的种类和数量, 并分析不同施药处理下转基因和非转基因棉田昆虫群落的生物多样性参数差异。结果表明, 施药和不施药转Bt基因棉田昆虫群落和害虫亚群落昆虫的个体总数均低于非转基因棉田, 其中昆虫群落和害虫亚群落个体数在二者之间差异显著; 转Bt基因棉田昆虫群落和害虫亚群落昆虫的多样性指数和均匀度指数均高于非转基因棉田, 而优势集中性指数均低于非转基因棉田, 但差异均不显著。施药条件下两种棉田的昆虫群落和害虫亚群落昆虫个体总数、多样性指数和均匀度指数均低于不施药棉田, 优势集中性指数均高于不施药棉田, 但转基因棉田和非转基因棉田之间无显著差异。表明转基因抗虫棉在盐碱旱地对棉田靶标害虫具有较好的控制作用, 棉田昆虫群落稳定性较高, 昆虫群落对外界的入侵和干扰缓冲能力强, 而化学农药的使用对昆虫群落杀伤力较大, 容易导致某种昆虫的抗性产生和昆虫群落的不稳定, 但比非盐碱旱地棉田昆虫群落生物多样性低, 棉田生态系统更简单。

关键词: 盐碱地, 旱地, Bt基因棉花, 昆虫群落

Abstract:

Cotton is one kind of economic crop that can tolerate high drought and salinity, and it has been planted increasingly in coastal saline alkaline soils and dry soils since China’s Yellow River and the Yangtze River cotton area dropped due to soil salinization and drought. In this paper, using no-transgenic cotton (CCRI 49 cotton) as control, insect community diversity in transgenic Bt cotton (CCRI 79 cotton) fields planted in coastal alkaline soils of Dongying City, Shandong Province and mildly saline and semi dry soils of Zaoqiang County, Hebei Province were investigated in 2013 and 2014. Results showed that, in the two case of spray and no-spray, the total number of individuals of insect communities and pest sub-communities in transgenic Bt cotton fields were lower than those in non-transgenic cotton, and these insect communities and pest sub-communities differed significantly. The insect diversity index and evenness index (of the insect community and pest sub-community) were higher in transgenic Bt cotton fields than those in non-transgenic cotton, but the dominant concentration index was lower than that of non-transgenic cotton. Under spraying, the total number of individuals within the insect community, pest sub-community and enemy sub-community were lower than those not sprayed fields for both transgenic Bt cotton and non-transgenic cotton. The diversity index and evenness index were lower in sprayed fields than those in no-spraying fields, but the dominant index was higher in the no-spraying cotton fields; however there were no significant difference between the sprayed and no-spraying cotton fields for both transgenic and no-transgenic cottons. Nevertherless there was lower biodiversity and simpler ecosystem than non-saline-dry soils.

Key words: saline alkaline soil, dry soil, transgenic Bt cotton, insect community