生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (4): 427-436.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10193

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

啮齿动物对六盘山区辽东栎、野李和华山松种子的取食和搬运

闫兴富1,*(), 余杨春2, 周立彪1, 周云峰1   

  1. 1 北方民族大学生物科学与工程学院, 宁夏银川 750021
    2 宁夏固原市六盘山林业局, 宁夏固原 756400
  • 收稿日期:2011-10-27 接受日期:2012-03-20 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 闫兴富
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: xxffyan@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(30960087);宁夏高等学校研究生教育创新计划项目(A09008)

Seed predation and removal of Quercus wutaishanica, Prunus salicina and Pinus armandii by rodents in the Liupan Mountains

Xingfu Yan1,*(), Yangchun Yu2, Libiao Zhou1, Yunfeng Zhou1   

  1. 1 College of Biological Science and Engineering, Beifang University for Nationalities, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021
    2 Liupanshan Forestry Bureau of Guyuan, Ningxia, Guyuan, Ningxia 756400
  • Received:2011-10-27 Accepted:2012-03-20 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-09-12
  • Contact: Xingfu Yan

摘要:

为了阐明不同种子投放方式和覆盖处理对啮齿动物取食和搬运/贮藏种子行为的影响, 2010年春季, 我们在宁夏六盘山区的辽东栎幼林, 用塑料标签标记法研究了不同种子投放方式(单独投放、两两组合投放和混合投放)和覆盖处理(对照、凋落物覆盖和土壤覆盖)下啮齿动物对辽东栎、野李和华山松种子的取食和搬运特点。结果表明: (1)不同物种、不同种子投放方式和覆盖处理对种子的就地取食率、搬运后的取食率和贮藏率均具有显著影响, 种子较大或具有厚而坚硬的种皮(内果皮)、组合和混合投放及覆盖处理均不同程度地促进啮齿动物对种子的搬运; (2)3种植物的种子被搬运后取食和贮藏的平均距离范围均在5.5 m以内, 而且种子被搬运后贮藏的距离均大于搬运后取食的距离, 其中华山松种子被搬运后取食的距离显著大于辽东栎和野李种子, 但搬运后的贮藏距离显著小于后两者。(3)种子被搬运后单个种子的取食点和贮藏点占多数, 其他大小的取食点和贮藏点较少, 种子被搬运后以土壤埋藏为主要的贮藏方式。结果表明, 种子的种皮特征以及种子在群落中的分布方式和存在状态, 可能通过延长啮齿动物处理的时间而增大啮齿动物的被捕食风险, 使动物改变对种子的取食和搬运行为, 进而决定了种子的命运。

关键词: 啮齿动物, 种子命运, 分散贮藏, 种子扩散, 六盘山区

Abstract

We established a field experiment to explore effects of different releasing methods and coverage treatments on predation and removal of Quercus wutaishanica, Prunus salicina and Pinus armandii seeds by rodents. We used three release (separately releasing, assembly releasing, and blend releasing) and cover (control, litter coverage, and soil coverage) treatments in young Q. wutaishanica stands in the Liupan Mountains of Ningxia in spring 2010. We detected significant effects of seeds of different species, release methods, and coverage treatments on the in situ seed predation rate. Seed predation and hoarding rates after removal by rodents were influenced by seed size, thickness and hardness of seed testa (endocarp), release methods, and coverage treatments. Although the average distance of seed movement during predation and hoarding events was within 5 m, the hoarding distance was longer than the predation distance for all three species. Specifically, we found that the predation distance of P. armandii seeds was significantly longer than those of Q. wutaishanica and P. salicina seeds, whereas the hoarding distance of the former was significantly shorter than the other two species. Sites that rodents used as predation and cache sites tended to contain only a single seed at a majority of the detected cache and predation sites. Soil burial was the primary strategy that rodents used to cache seeds. In summary, seed physical characteristics, distributional patterns, and ground coverage in forest communities may affect seed predation and hoarding behaviors of rodents by extending seed handling time and increasing predation risk of estimation by rodents and as a result, determined seed fates.

Key words: rodent, seed fate, scatter hoarding, seed dispersal, Liupan Mountains