生物多样性 ›› 2024, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 23300.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2023300

• 保护与治理对策 • 上一篇    下一篇

生物多样性信用的概念、原则、交易和挑战

彭昀月*,靳彤,张小全   

  1. 大自然保护协会(美国)北京代表处, 北京 100600
  • 收稿日期:2023-08-24 修回日期:2023-12-14 出版日期:2024-02-20 发布日期:2024-01-11
  • 通讯作者: 彭昀月

Biodiversity credits: Concepts, principles, transactions and challenges

Yunyue Peng*, Tong Jin, Xiaoquan Zhang   

  1. The Nature Conservancy Beijing Representative Office, Beijing, 100600

  • Received:2023-08-24 Revised:2023-12-14 Online:2024-02-20 Published:2024-01-11
  • Contact: Yunyue Peng

摘要: 为应对生物多样性资金缺口、遏止与扭转全球生物多样性丧失, 生物多样性信用以碳信用为蓝本应运而生。与以生物多样性损失为前提的生物多样性抵消不同, 生物多样性信用是一种可测量、追踪和交易的, 能为生物多样性带来净效益的经济工具。本文旨在介绍生物多样性信用的概念内涵, 详细阐释了其与生物多样性抵消和碳信用的概念异同, 在参考高质量碳信用的基础上汇总了生物多样性信用的原则, 包含其核算方法和治理体系, 同时介绍了目前全球生物多样性信用市场, 提供了不同交易项目的具体实践案例, 并梳理了生物多样性信用在定价、是否会成为企业漂绿的工具、监管与治理体系以及与碳信用的兼容等4方面的问题和挑战。未来, 生物多样性信用挑战与机遇并存。

关键词: 生物多样性丧失, 生物多样性信用, 生物多样性抵消, 碳信用, 市场机制

Abstract

Aim & Background: Unlike biodiversity offsets, which are based on the premise of biodiversity loss, biodiversity credits are an economic instrument that is measurable, traceable, tradable, and generates net biodiversity gains. To address the funding gap for biodiversity and to halt and reverse global biodiversity loss, biodiversity credits have emerged with carbon credits as a blueprint.  

Results: This paper introduced the conceptual framework of biodiversity credits, providing a detailed explanation of their similarities and differences with biodiversity offsets and carbon credits. Drawing on the foundation of high-quality carbon credits, the paper summarized the principles of biodiversity credits, including their accounting approaches and governance systems. Furthermore, it presented the current global market for biodiversity credits, offering specific practical examples of various trading projects.

Prospects: The paper also examined four aspects of problems and challenges related to biodiversity credits: (1) pricing in voluntary markets lacks clear standards; (2) the risk of being a potential greenwashing tool used by enterprises; (3) regulatory and governance systems need safeguards for transparency and community rights; (4) the compatibility with carbon credits is controversial. Looking forward, challenges and opportunities of biodiversity credits co-exist as a critical tool for businesses to achieve their Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) goals.

Key words: biodiversity loss, biodiversity credits, biodiversity offsets, carbon credits, market mechanism

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