生物多样性

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海洋生境制图研究进展--概念、方法与应用

胡文佳1,3 周秋麟1 陈彬1,3* 杨圣云2 肖佳媚2 杜建国1,3 黄浩1,3 俞炜炜1,3 马志远1,3

  

  1. 1(自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建厦门,361005)

    2(厦门大学海洋与地球学院,福建厦门,361005)

    3(福建省海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室,福建厦门,361005)

  • 收稿日期:2020-04-29 修回日期:2020-08-07 出版日期:2020-09-20 发布日期:2020-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈彬(海洋三所)

Progress in marine habitat mapping — Concept, method, and applications

Wenjia Hu1,3, Qiulin Zhou1, Bin Chen1,3, Shengyun Yang2, Jiamei Xiao2, Jianguo Du1,3, Hao Huang1,3, Weiwei Yu1,3, Zhiyuan Ma1,3   

  1. 1 Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, Fujian, 361005

    2 College of Oceanic and Earth, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361005 

    3 Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration,Xiamen,Fujian, 361005

  • Received:2020-04-29 Revised:2020-08-07 Online:2020-09-20 Published:2020-09-20
  • Contact: Bin Chen

摘要: 基于生态系统的海洋管理采用生态边界而非行政边界来指导管理实践,海洋生境制图旨在探寻海洋环境与生物群落/物种的分布规律,从而为生物多样性保护和海洋空间规划等管理行动提供可以依循的生态边界。海洋生境制图是科研监测数据通往管理决策应用的有效途径,近年来已成为海洋生态保护与管理领域的国际研究热点,但我国对于海洋生境制图的研究才刚刚起步。本文对海洋生境制图的国内外研究进展进行了综述,介绍了海洋生境制图的定义和内涵,明确了海洋生境制图的步骤及其在生态系统管理中的应用;系统阐述了海洋生境制图的主要研究方法,从生境分类方案、生境分区和生态特征描述等方面对海洋生境制图的研究过程及采用的分析方法进行了总结;全面梳理了国内外的代表性海洋生境制图研究案例,对各国已开发的海洋生境分类分区体系进行了对比和评述,总结了共性特征;最后提出研究建议,对我国开展海洋生境制图研究的前景进行展望,以期为我国的海洋生态空间管理工作提供科学依据和参考。

关键词: 生境制图, 海洋空间规划, 生境分类, 生态分区

Abstract: The ecological boundaries rather than the administrative boundaries are adopted in the Marine ecosystem-based management (MEBM) to guide management practices. Marine habitat mapping aims to explore the distribution patterns of marine environment and biomes/species, thereby providing ecological boundaries for management actions like biodiversity conservation and marine spatial planning. Marine habitat mapping is an effective approach of leading monitoring data to decision-making, which has become a research hotspot for marine ecosystem conservation and management. However, studies on marine habitat mapping have just begun in China. This article reviewed the domestic and foreign research progress of marine habitat mapping. First the definition and connotation of marine habitat mapping was explained. Then the steps of marine habitat mapping and its application in ecosystem-based management were clarified. The methods for marine habitat mapping were systematically summarized, from the aspects of habitat classification scheme, ecoregion delineation and characteristics descriptions. Furthermore, the representative marine habitat mapping cases were summarized. By comparing the marine habitat mapping systems developed by different countries or regions, the common characteristics were proposed. Finally, suggestions were put forward to interpret the prospects of marine habitat mapping applications in China, providing scientific basis for China's marine ecological spatial management.

Key words: habitat mapping, marine spatial planning, habitat classification, ecological region