生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 490-497.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016268

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 神农架世界自然遗产地专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

神农架世界自然遗产地的全球突出普遍价值及其保护

谢宗强*(), 申国珍, 周友兵, 樊大勇, 徐文婷, 高贤明, 杜彦君, 熊高明, 赵常明, 祝燕, 赖江山   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-20 接受日期:2017-01-20 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-06-06
  • 通讯作者: 谢宗强
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 国家重点研发计划“遗产地生态保护与修复技术体系研究” (2016YFC0503303)和中国科学院野外站联盟项目“中国典型自然保护区保护成效评估” (KFJ-SW-YW028)

The outstanding universal value and conservation of the Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site

Zongqiang Xie*(), Guozhen Shen, Youbing Zhou, Dayong Fan, Wenting Xu, Xianming Gao, Yanjun Du, Gaoming Xiong, Changming Zhao, Yan Zhu, Jiangshan Lai   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environment Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2016-09-20 Accepted:2017-01-20 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-06-06
  • Contact: Xie Zongqiang

摘要:

自然保护地是生物多样性及其生物生态过程保护的最有效手段, 世界自然遗产地是全球最具有保护价值的自然保护地。神农架世界自然遗产地以其丰富的动植物多样性和独特的生物生态过程, 维持着北亚热带山地生态系统的功能和稳定性。目前, 尚缺乏对神农架世界自然遗产地全球突出普遍价值的深入研究和论证, 仍不清楚其突出普遍价值及其在全球的代表性。本研究在收集整理神农架历史文献资料的基础上, 基于对神农架地区长达近20年的调查研究和数据积累, 依据“实施《世界遗产公约》操作指南”, 从动植物多样性及其栖息地、生物群落及其生物生态学过程等方面, 分析论证了神农架世界自然遗产地的全球突出普遍价值。神农架保存了完好的原始常绿落叶阔叶混交林, 典型代表并展示了北半球常绿落叶阔叶混交林生态系统的生物生态学过程, 拥有北亚热带典型的山地垂直自然带谱, 在东方落叶林生物地理省具有唯一性和代表性; 是温带植物区系分化、发展和集散的重要地区和世界上落叶木本植物最丰富的地区, 突出反映了北亚热带生物群落的生物进化与演替的进程; 是众多古老孑遗物种的避难所, 也是国际珍稀濒危物种和中国特有种的重要栖息地。研究结果表明, 神农架世界自然遗产地在生物多样性、生态系统类型、生物演化等方面为全球同纬度杰出代表。本研究明确了神农架世界自然遗产地在全球背景下的突出普遍价值, 为科学合理地监测和保护全球同纬度地区北亚热带生物多样性和生态系统功能提供了科学依据。

关键词: 山地垂直带谱, 落叶木本植物, 廊道-踏脚石-通道, 生物生态学过程, 生物多样性及其栖息地

Abstract

World Natural Heritage site is recognized globally as the pinnacle of natural protected areas that are the cornerstones of biodiversity conservation. The World Natural Heritage of Shennongjia represents one of the worldwide biodiversity hotspots. But, until now, it has not been clear how outstanding the universal value of Shennongjia is worldwide, and this study presents one of the most compelling challenges to conservation efforts. Here, we compiled literature and conducted additional field surveys in the Shennongjia region to illustrate the outstanding universal value of Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site using World Heritage criteria (ix) and (x), following the operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Results show that the heritage of Shennongjia offers an outstanding example of the ongoing ecological processes occurring in the development of intact subtropical mixed broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. This region presents a typical example of mountain altitudinal biological zones in the Oriental Deciduous Forest Biogeographical Province. Shennongjia is also a vital origin location for global temperate flora, and harbors the highest concentration of global temperate genera of trees. Moreover, the heritage of Shennongjia displays exceptional biodiversity and is a key habitat for numerous relic, rare, endangered and endemic species. The richness of deciduous woody species in Shennongjia is the highest in the world. Our study provides great insight into protecting, monitoring and managing the outstanding world heritage in the Northern Hemisphere.

Key words: mountain altitudinal zones, deciduous woody species, corridor, stepping stones, wildlife crossing, biological and ecological process, biodiversity and habitat