生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (6): 639-645.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004079

• 论文 • 上一篇    

卧龙自然保护区社区居民政策响应研究

徐建英, 陈利顶*, 吕一河, 傅伯杰, 杨爽   

  1. (中国科学院生态环境研究中心系统生态重点实验室,北京100085)
  • 收稿日期:2004-07-20 修回日期:2004-10-26 出版日期:2004-11-20 发布日期:2004-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈利顶

Local people′s responses to policies in Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan

XU Jian-Ying, CHEN Li-Ding*, LU Yi-He, FU Bo-Jie, YANG Shuang   

  1. Key Laboratory of Systems Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
  • Received:2004-07-20 Revised:2004-10-26 Online:2004-11-20 Published:2004-11-20
  • Contact: CHEN Li-Ding

摘要: 自然保护区与当地社区居民之间具有长期的相互依存关系,二者协调发展是自然保护区管理的核心内容之一。保护区政策是联结保护区和社区关系的纽带,通过调查和分析社区居民对保护区政策的响应,可以获得改善两者关系的有效信息。本研究通过对卧龙自然保护区内社区居民的问卷调查,分析了影响自然保护区和社区协调发展的因素。研究结果表明:(1) 保护区的主要生态保育政策和工程对改善保护区和社区的关系具有显著影响,其中有两个问题需要特别注意:一是退耕还林政策的实施,减少了农业就业人口,出现了大量剩余劳动力,对生物多样性保护将产生潜在威胁;二是天然林保护工程和以电代柴政策与居民用电消费和补偿的切身利益直接相关,需要制定科学的用电消费和补偿机制。(2) 社区居民对自然保护区的认知响应在不同社会特征的群体之间存在明显差异,其中教育水平和性别影响社区居民对保护区现行政策的认知响应,教育水平和居住地点影响社区居民对移民政策的响应。根据上述调查和分析结果,本文提出了加强公众参与、提高教育水平、增加居民就业、科学确定电价以及逐步移民等相应对策。

AbstractTo sustain long-term coexistence, it is important to avoid conflicts between protected area management and local people′s needs. Management policies implemented in protected areas play an important role in shaping their relationships with local people. To assess local people′s responses towards policies is a crucial step in information collection for decision-making. Based on a questionnaire survey and cross-tabulation analysis, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of local people′s responses to current policies, developmental conditions and policy scenarios in Wolong Nature Reserve, aiming to determine the factors affecting conflict mitigation between the reserve management and local people. Our results showed two potential conflicts existed threatening the biodiversity conservation and reserve management by the comprehensive analysis of current policies such as the “Grain for Green” Project, the Natural Forest Protection Project and the Substitute Electricity for Fuelwood Program. One conflict was that between the decrease of cropland holdings and overstocking of the labor force. The other was between the increase of electricity prices and the decrease of subsidies from the Natural Forest Protection Project. Local people′s responses were closely related to their personal characteristics such as gender and educational level, while responses to policy scenarios of relocation were associated with their residential place and educational level. We propose some measures to mitigate potential conflicts and modify management policies, including strengthening public participation, improving educational levels of and providing employment chances for local people, establishing reasonable prices for electricity and implementing a relocation policy.

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