生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (3): 280-285.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002038

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

天津地区水鸟区系组成及多样性分析

张淑萍,张正旺,徐基良, 孙全辉, 刘冬平   

  1. (北京师范大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室,  北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2001-09-13 修回日期:2002-03-05 出版日期:2002-08-20 发布日期:2002-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 张正旺

The analysis of waterbird diversity in Tianjin

ZHANG Shu-Ping,ZHANG Zheng-Wang,XU Ji-Liang,SUN Quan-Hui,LIU Dong-Ping   

  1. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Blodiversity and Ecological Engineering , Beijing Normal University , Beijing 100875
  • Received:2001-09-13 Revised:2002-03-05 Online:2002-08-20 Published:2002-08-20
  • Contact: ZHANG ZhengWang

摘要: 1997年10月~2000年12月间,作者对天津地区的20处湿地的水鸟进行了调查, 共记录到水鸟107种,分属7目14科39属。其中候鸟103种,占总数的96.2%。鸻形目和雁形目无论在种类上还是在数量上都占绝对优势,分别占水鸟群落种类组成的41.1%和31.1%。记录到包括东方白鹳(Ciconia boyciana)、黑鹳(Ciconia nigra)、丹顶鹤(Grus japonensis)、白鹤(Grus cogeranus)、大鸨(Otis tarda)及遗鸥(Larus relictus)在内的国家I级保护物种6种。记录到国家II级保护物种8种,分别为白枕鹤(Grus vipio)、蓑羽鹤(Anthropoides virgo)、灰鹤(Grus grus) 、海鸬鹚(Phalacrocorax pelagicus)、大天鹅(Cygnus cygnus)、小天鹅(C. columbianus)、疣鼻天鹅(C. olor)、白额雁(Anser albifrons)。对包括北大港水库、团泊洼水库、七里海水库及尔王庄水库在内的4个重点调查区域进行水鸟多样性分析表明,北大港水库的物种多样性及科、属多样性均较高,且有众多的珍稀物种,是一个重要的水鸟停歇地,应加强对该区域的保护。此外,本文提出在分析生物群落多样性时,应将分类因素与物种的数量因素综合起来考虑,因而同时使用G-F指数与Shannon-Wiener指数,可更为全面地评价某一地区的群落多样性。

AbstractSurveys in Tianjin from 1997 to 2000 recorded 107 species of waterbirds. These birds belonged to 7 orders, 14 families and 39 genera, of which migrants accounted for 96.2%. The birds of Anseriformes and Charadriifomes were the dominant species and they comprised 41.1% and 31.1% of the species of the community respectively. Six of the species recorded in Tianjin were national first-grade protected wildlife, including oriental white stork(Ciconia boyciana), black stork(Ciconia nigra), red crowned crane (Grus japonensis), white crane (Grus leucogeranus), great bustard (Otis tarda) and relic gull(Larus relictus). Eight of the recorded species were national second grade protected wildlife, including white naped crane (Grus vipio) , demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), common crane (Grus grus), sea cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), whistling swan (C. columbianus), mute swan (C. olor), and white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons). The community diversities of the four main study areas were analyzed by using the G-F index and Shannon-Wiener index. Both Shannon-Wiener index and the G-F index of Beidagang are higher than the other areas, and Beidagang is also a migration stop-over site for many endangered species, so this wetland is a very important resource and should be protected. As the G-F index reflects the diversity of higher classification units of the community, it is a very useful diversity index for the analysis of bird community. The combination of the G-F index and Shannon-Weiner index provides a comprehensive measure of community diversity.