生物多样性 ›› 1999, Vol. 07 ›› Issue (3): 234-239.DOI: 10.17520/biods.1999036

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

农业活动对生物多样性的影响

陈欣,唐建军,王兆骞   

  1. 1 (浙江农业大学农业生态研究所,  杭州 310029)
    2 (浙江大学生物科学与技术系,  杭州 310027)
  • 收稿日期:1998-05-29 修回日期:1998-09-22 出版日期:1999-08-20 发布日期:1999-08-20

The impacts of agricultural activities on biodiversity

CHEN Xin, TANG Jian-Jun,WANG Zhao-Qian   

  1. 1) Agroecology Institute ,Zhejiang Agricultural University , Hangzhou  310029
    2)Department of Biosciences , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou  310027
  • Received:1998-05-29 Revised:1998-09-22 Online:1999-08-20 Published:1999-08-20

摘要:

农业生产活动如土地的农业利用、耕作、作物间套种植方式、放牧、农药化肥的使用以及农业动植物遗传改良(包括外来种引入)等是农业生产力提高的重要途径,同时也是影响生物多样性的重要因素之一。土地的不合理开发利用易导致生境破碎、生物多样性下降;大规模的机械耕作导致土壤动植物区系的变化,甚至某些物种的消失;农药(除草剂、杀虫剂等)的高度使用使非靶标动植物受到伤害;品种改良、外来种的引入以及远缘外源遗传物质的利用(如远缘杂交和DNA导入分子育种)在丰富了遗传多样性的同时导致农作物类型和品种的简单化、一些古老的地方种和农家种等传统资源丢失等;而一些合理的农业措施(间套作、实行有机农场等)将有利于生物多样性的保持。农业活动注重的是农业生产力的提高而往往忽视其对农业系统中野生动植物(包括有害和无害)的影响以及野生动植物在维持系统稳定和平衡的作用。本文论述农业活动对生物多样性的影响以及生物多样性保护对提高农业生产力的作用,启示人们采取合理的农业活动方式,合理管理有害生物,减少农业活动对生物多样性的负面影响。

AbstractAgricultural activities , such as land use , tillage , intercropping and rotation , grazing , and extensive usage of pesticides and fertilizers , exotic germplasms introduction , and screening of varying progenies in breeding program , have significant impacts on species diversity , genetic diversity of flora and fauna. Land use in an unreasonable way results in habitat fragmentation and biodiversity decrease. Species in soil were disturbed or became extinct on a large scale by tillage activities with agricultural machines. Extensive usage of pesticides causes loss of non2target insects and plants. Genetic erosion resulted from modern breeding program by means of limited interspecies hybridization decreases the genetic diversity of agroecosytem. Some agricultural activities such as intercropping , rotation , organic farming practice are favorable for biodiversity conservation. In most cases , agricultural activities focus only on crop production , while the impacts on wild plants and animals by agricultural activities are neglected. This paper provided an overview of the impacts of agricultural practices on biodiversity , and discussed how agricultural practices could be modified so as to enhance the conservation of biological resources and long term viability of agriculture.