生物多样性 ›› 2005, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (3): 269-277.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.040197

• 论文 • 上一篇    

植物群落动态的模型分析

刘振国,李镇清*,董鸣   

  1. (中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室, 北京 100093)
  • 收稿日期:2004-12-17 修回日期:2005-04-24 出版日期:2005-05-20 发布日期:2005-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 李镇清

Model analysis of plant community dynamics

Zhenguo Liu, Zhenqing Li* , Ming Dong   

  1. Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2004-12-17 Revised:2005-04-24 Online:2005-05-20 Published:2005-05-20
  • Contact: Zhenqing Li

摘要:

植物群落的动态是植物群落学的中心问题之一, 包括更新、波动、演替、进化等主要内容。空间格局对种群和群落的动态起着至关重要的作用, 种群空间格局和群落空间结构是群落中各种过程相互作用的产物。模型是描述群落动态、认识植物群落组建和维持机理的有效工具。本文阐述和比较了描述群落动态的四种具有代表性的经验模型, 即镶嵌循环模型、随意游走模型、同资源种团比例模型、空间抢先占有模型及其机理。四种经验模型的空间性及缺陷分别是: (1)“镶嵌循环模型”考虑到了相邻斑块之间的植被空间结合在群落动态中的作用, 而另外三种模型没有考虑到这一点; (2)在一定程度上, 四种植物群落动态模型对各自针对的植物群落可能是适合的, 但要作为描述群落动态发展的一般性模型还需要不断完善和发展; 因为四种模型均没有考虑到自然干扰和人类干扰对植物群落动态的影响。作者对将来植物群落动态的研究及实践意义做出以下展望: (1)在不同空间尺度上, 更加有效地评价控制群落动态变化的各种过程的相对重要性,并进一步将它们之间的复杂相互作用整合到群落动态模型中; (2)充分认识植物群落中存在的各种自然环境条件和生物群体的结构配置对植物群落动态发展的重要性; (3)重视植物群落动态发展中自然干扰过程和人类干扰过程的整合以及二者之间的互相依赖性; (4)强调了植物群落动态模型的有关理论可以应用于退化生态系统的恢复和重建。

Abstract:

Plant community dynamics, such as renewal, fluctuation, succession and evolution, is central in the ecology of plant communities. Ecological modeling is an effective analytical tool for description of community dynamics and understanding of the mechanism of community establishment and maintenance. Here we introduce four typical conceptual models of dynamics of plant communities and their mechanisms, the mosaic-cycle model, the carousel model, the guild-proportionality model and the space-preemption model. These are compared in relation to pattern and process of communities and their spatial characteristics are discussed. Among them, only the mosaic-cycle model accounts for the effect of vegetation spatial com-bination between adjacent patches of plant communities. None of the models consider effects of natural disturbance and human disturbance on plant communities. To a certain extent, they all need to be improved for a general model for analyzing community dynamics. Three challenging directions of future research and one practical implication of community dynamics theory are put forward: (1) improvement of the ability to evaluate the relative importance of controlling processes at all spatial scales and to integrate knowledge about their complex interactions into dynamic models, (2) better assessment of the real importance of spatial configuration of natural environmental conditions and biological colonies in the dynamics of terrestrial plant communities, (3) recognition of the integration of natural and cultural processes in the development of dy-namics of plant communities and the mutual independence between the two kinds of disturbance processes, and (4) the emphasis on application of plant community dynamics models to restoration and reconstruction of degraded ecosystem. These insights are expected to provide a sound scientific foundation for the realization of the transformation from qualitative conceptual models to general theoretical models.