生物多样性

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重寄生属植物及其在我国的分布、现状与保护对策

李冬雪1,丁雨龙2*   

  1. 1 (中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 北京 100091)
    2 (南京林业大学森林资源与环境学院, 南京 210037)
  • 收稿日期:2004-12-21 修回日期:2005-03-04 出版日期:2005-05-20 发布日期:2005-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 丁雨龙

Distribution, present situation and conservation strategy of the genus Phacellaria

Dongxue Li1, Yulong Ding2*   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Forestry,Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 College of Forest Resources & Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
  • Received:2004-12-21 Revised:2005-03-04 Online:2005-05-20 Published:2005-05-20
  • Contact: Yulong Ding

摘要:

重寄生属(Phacellaria)植物共有8个种, 其地理分布主要局限于东南亚和我国华南和西南地区的亚热带和热带山地森林中, 其中我国分布有6个种。重寄生属植物的寄主仅局限于桑寄生科(Loranthaceae)和檀香科(Santalaceae)寄生藤属(Dendrotrophe)的植物。作者在查阅国内主要标本馆的馆藏标本、野外调查并结合已有研究报道的基础上, 详细分析了我国重寄生属植物目前的生存现状, 认为它们已经处于渐危或濒危的境地。造成重寄生属植物渐危或濒危的主要因素是森林过度砍伐导致的重寄生植物寄主种群密度的降低; 与重寄生植物种子传播者啄花鸟类的生境片断化和数量的减少等也有密切的关系。重寄生属植物与其寄主、种子传播者啄花鸟类和生境中的其他生物形成了复杂的关系, 是生物多样性的重要组成部分。因此, 有必要对重寄生属植物进行保护。提出了保护重寄生属植物的生境、保护啄花鸟类和加强其生物学特性研究等保护对策。

Abstract:

There are eight species in the genus Phacellaria, six of which are distributed in tropical and subtropical mountain areas of South and Southwest China. The species belonging to this genus are obligate holoparasites on the plants of Loranthaceae and Dendrotrophe (Santalaceae). Based on previously collected specimens, documents and field investigation, we found that Phacellaria is becoming more and more vulnerable, and is well on its way to becoming endangered in the near future. The main factors contributing to the growing vulnerability of Phacellaria species are: (1) deforestation resulting in a dramatic decline in the population density of the hosts of Phacellaria, and (2) the decrease in number of Dicaeum spp., the small birds who disperse seeds of Phacellaria, due to habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. We suggest two solutions to this dilemma. The first is to recover the previously damaged ecosystems of Phacellaria and Dicaeum spp., and the second is to enhance research on the biological characters of Phacellaria species.