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Table of Content
    Volume 02 Issue Suppl.
    20 December 1994
      
    Biodiversity as a Major Role in Human Ecology
    WU ZHENGYI
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  1-8.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994040
    Abstract ( 2043 )   PDF (235KB) ( 2303 )   Save
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    Biodiversity means the living organisms themselves and the diversity and variability of the ecological complex which living organisms depend on for their survival. We may realize it and arrange it both macroscopically and microscopically into 5 levels, namely:ecosystem diversity, association diversiity, species diversitiy, cytological diversity and genetic diversity. Biological resources are the material expression of biodiversity and the material things are evaluated to supply food, medicine, raw and processed materials for industry and energy resources for the existence of mankind and the develo pment of national economy. Yet, the living things, including plants, animals, microbes and human beings, together with their environment, i.e., the atmosphere, water and soil, form an interdependent and interacted circulatory system (the ecosystem ) in the biosphere. Nowadays every ecological problem is closely related to human ecology. Whether human as a coordinator in the ecosystem, or as a destroyer depends on what strategy they adopt and what kinds of ecological processes of exploitation and utilization they choose. Therefore the rational utilization and protection of plants should become the key of solving problems of the six ecological crises. These crises we are facing are the consumption of energy, the exhaustion of resources, the explosion of population, the shortage of food and water, the degradation of environment and the imbalance of ecological circulation. From the past geological ep ochs up to the present, no green plants (especially higher green plants) means no any other living things and no human society, and any irrational cleeaning of plant covers on the earth would lead to an ever worsening condition of our environment, and thus cause the six ecological crises successively or simultaneously and seriously, which would result in the extinction of quite many biological species, even including Homo sapiens itself. The only way of preventing the degradation lies on the rational use of plants. The degree of the compromise attained between mankind and plant kingdom may be a measurement of rationalization. We believe that modern agriculture is the common goal. In this "Great Agriculture', ecology and economy are combined togetther, and as many as we can use the multifarious biological resources from different levels of biodiversity. However, their nucleus is agro-forestry, being an ecological arrangment of several kinds of regenerable resources from various biodiversities, with resources in the form of agriculture and forestry playing the major role. The rational measure will be gradually formed during the full application of every kind of modern and scientific means for cultivation.

    Influence of Livestock Grazing on Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) Diversity in the Inner Mongolian Steppes
    KANG LE
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  9-17.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994041
    Abstract ( 2202 )   PDF (314KB) ( 3551 )   Save
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    Vegetation and grasshopper community variables were monitored on the natural steppes grazed by livestock in the Inner Mongolia, China. Species richness, diversity and evenness of grasshoppers on the plots under different grazing intensities were compared. Change in plant community directly affected the species composition of grasshoppers. However, floral parameters were not entirely parallel to characteristics of grasshopper community. Moderate grazing could preserve more diverse grasshoppers with lower proportion of pest species. The importance of some grasshopper indicators to grassland change was discussed

    Seed Plant Species Pools: the Development of Species Richness in Eastern Asia and North America
    KENT T. ADAIR, SHIYOU LI
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  18-29.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994042
    Abstract ( 1943 )   PDF (418KB) ( 2167 )   Save
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    Great species richness in eastern Asia is the effect of a long history with low extinction and speciation rates, while great richness in northwestern North America is due to recent rapid speeiation. Data fail to support the theoretical dominacy of ecological determinism in favor of region-speeific geophysical history as a basis for explaining regional species diversity. A species pool is proposed as the product of evolution, immigration, and extinction and thus postulates extant species richness to be and historical artifact rather than an ecologically determinate reality.

    Census of Penguins on Ardley Island of Western Antarctic
    ZHANG ZHENGWANG, ZHENG GUANGMEI, YUAN JUNFENG, YANG WEIXIANG
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  30-35.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994043
    Abstract ( 2649 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1630 )   Save
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    Four species of penguins were found on Ardley Island of King George Ishnd during the austral summer of 1993 and 1994. Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus is a new record of bird on this Island, The numbers of nests found were 44 1205 and 3678 for Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica, Adelie Penguin P. adeliae and Gentoo Penguin P. papua respectively. Totally about 7430 fledged penguin chicks were produced on Ardley Island in the summer of 1993 and 1994. The decrease of the Island population of Chinstrap Penguins might have resulted from the increasing human disturbance.

    Seasonal species Diversity of Phytoplankton in Zhangjiang Seawaters
    LIU YU
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  36-42.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994044
    Abstract ( 2876 )   PDF (218KB) ( 3428 )   Save
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    Similar to other plants, animals and microorganisms, phytoplankton has diversity in many respects, such as species diversity, morphological diversity and ecological diversity. Seasonal variations of species composition and diversity were the greatest difference of phytoplankton from other living populations. Species diversity and diversity indices of phytoplankton and growth related factors were investigated in Zhangjiang seawaters in winter and summer seasons. 15 species appeared only in winter, 49 species appeared only in summer, and 33 species could survive in winter and summer seasons. And the seasonal variations of species richness and abundance were greatly related with water temperature, salinity and other growth related factors. Thalassionema nitzschioides, Nitzschia sp. and Coscinodiscus bipartitus were the dominant species in winter: Bacteriatrum varians, Chaetoceros subescundus and Nittzchia sp., etc were the dominant species in summer. Species diversity index (H), evenness (J) and abundance (d) in summer were higher than in winnter. Otherwise. the dominance (D) was higher in winter than in summer. Furthermore, more red-tide algae appeared in summer than in winter.

    Geographic Diversification of Biota in the Continent of China
    ZHANG RONGZU
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  43-46.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994045
    Abstract ( 1833 )   PDF (135KB) ( 2249 )   Save
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    Wildlife Conservation in China: the Problem of Prioritites
    WILLIAM BLEISCH
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  47-54.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994046
    Abstract ( 2273 )   PDF (283KB) ( 2242 )   Save
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    Resources for biodiversity conservation in China are limited, so careful planning is needed to make best use of available resources. Establishing priorities for conservation action is complex because local, national and global perspectives can give rise to different prorities. I illustrat this by considering prorities for conservation of wildlife diversity in China's forests. Priorities among different conservation strategies are also an important consideration. Protected areas and captive breeding programs can be considered as two tactics from a range of options which differ in intensity of management, cost and effectiveness.

    Detection of the Paulownia Witches' Broom Mycoplasmalike Organism by Polymerase Chain Reaction
    ZHANG CHUNLI, LIN MULAN, YANG JIHONG, SHI XIAOYAN
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  55-60.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994047
    Abstract ( 2164 )   PDF (194KB) ( 1999 )   Save
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    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with high sensitivity and specificity has been developed with a pair of oligonucleotide primers designed and synthesized according to the DNA sequence specific to paulownia witches' broom mycoplasmalike organism (PWB-MLO). Under optimum conditions, i. e. 22. 5mM of Mg2+, 3.0 units of Taq DNA polymerase in a 100μl PCR reaction mixture and annealing at 55℃, a unique 377-bp DNA fragment was amplified aftter 30 cycles from all field-grown, MLO-infected paulownia tissues with or without PWB symptom. No amplified DNA was detected under the same conditions in the samples from healthy paulowina, healthy and MLO-infected jujube and rhododendron plants. With the established PCR system, the PWB-MLO DNA from approximately 2pg of crude DNA from diseased paulownia petiole tissues could be detected. This method is suitable for practical diagnosis and customs quarantine.

    Ultradry Seed Storage: Improved Strategy and Technology for Germplasm Conservation
    ZHENG GUANGHUA
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  61-65.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994048
    Abstract ( 2015 )   PDF (191KB) ( 2763 )   Save
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    A research program on ultradry seed storage (supported by IBPGR) was carried out at the Beijing Botanical Garden from 1989-1993. Various kinds of seeds of more than 20 speices were used. Many significant rsults and findings were obtained, and some new concepts were derived from them. Based on a series of experiments, it was concluded that ultradry storage has the potential to be an alternative technique for germplasm conservation in gene banks. Advances of researches in detail were reported in this paper.

    The Biodiversity of the Basic Chromatin Proteins of Archaebacteria in China
    WEN JIANFAN, LI JINGYAN
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  66-71.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994049
    Abstract ( 3213 )   PDF (186KB) ( 2070 )   Save
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    Using a novel acid extraction procedure, the acid-soluble proteins from a thermo-and acido-philic archaebacterium Suifosphaerellus thermoacidophilum were isolated, and analysised by SDS-PAGE and AUT-PAGE with the calf thymus histones, which were isolated by the same procedure, as a control. The neutral Azocarmin G staining technique, which specifically stains basic chromatin protein, was used. The results suggested that the archaebacterium owns three major basic chromatin proteins, the molecular weight of all the basic proteins was smaller than calf thymus histone H4 (MW 11 282). Different artchaebacterium possesses very different basic chromatin (histone-like) proteins. The biodiversity of these proteins was very rich. The significance of theeir biodiversity to the origin and evolution of histone was discussed.

    Status and Prospect of Transgenic Potato in China
    CUI XIAOJIANG, PENG XUEXIAN
    Biodiv Sci. 1994, 02 (Suppl.):  72-74.  doi:10.17520/biods.1994050
    Abstract ( 2010 )   PDF (99KB) ( 2362 )   Save
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    As one of the biggest potato producing countries, China has the largest potato growing areas in the world. In some arid areas or mountainous districts, this crop is regarded as the staple food, while in other regions, it is a major daily vegetable. Due to the infection of virus, bacteria, fungi, etc. and the influence of environmental conditions, the per unit area yield of potato in China is lower than that of the world average. Furthermore, many marketable quality traits of domestic commercial cultivars are not satisfactory. Owing to the development of current methods in plant biotechnology and ease of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and regeneration of potato tissues, some Chinese plant biotehnology laboratories have Carried out or joined in some projects for the improvement of potato plants and have made progress in this area.


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