Soil microbes collected from Great Wall Station area in Antarctica were studied. Results showed thatthe total number of ammonification bacteria was 104~106 cells/per gram of soil. Ammonification bacteria belong to 7 genera, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium,Arthrobacter. The total number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was 105~107 cells/g,which included only Azotobacter. The total number of nitrobacteria was 104 cells/g,and this nitrobacteria included Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus. The total number of fungi was 103 cells/g, such fungi belong to 5 genera,Penicillium,Chrysosporium , Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Eurotium. The total number of denitrifying bacteria was102~ 104 cells/g, This bacteria were Pseudomonas,Bacillus and Micrococcus. Actinomycete were also identified Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Nocardia. The appearing rate of psychrophilic miorobes(growing below 12℃) are 42% for Pseudomonas, 35% for Bacillus, 31%for Mcrococcus, 27% for Arthrobacter, 58% for Penicillium, 54% for Cladosporium, 81% for Nitrobacter and 88% for Azotobacter; denitrifying bacteria are 58% for Pseudomonas and 38% for Bacillus. The relationship between soilmicrobes and total C and N of soil samples, and the ecological effect of soil microbes participating nitrogen cycle in this area were also discussed.