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Table of Content
    Volume 04 Issue Suppl.
    20 December 1996
      
    Analyses of Genetic Diversities in Chinese Fresh-water Fishes
    YU QIXING, ZHOU RONGJIA
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  1-5.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996040
    Abstract ( 2806 )   PDF (190KB) ( 2931 )   Save
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    A wealth of literature has been published in the studies of Chinese fresh-water fish chromisomes within recent years. In this paper, we review the inter- and intraspeeific genetic diversities found in Chinese/resh-water fishes, and explore the characteristics and mechanisms that underline these diversities and variations. We also propose the hypothesis how the genetic diversities had evolved in the fresh-water fishes.

    Community Structure Dynamics of the Hermatypic Corals on Luhuitou Fringing Reef, Hainan, China. I. Species Composition and Abundance
    YU DENGPAN, ZOU RENLIN
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  6-14.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996041
    Abstract ( 2641 )   PDF (296KB) ( 2041 )   Save
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    The existing hermatypic coral community is composed of localities in different successional ages. Data sets were selected from original sampling data to deduce the trajectory of community structure in this and subsequent papers. Patterns of species composition and abundance distribution during community succession in the scope of different habitats were described in this paper. It is found that the effect of succession on community structure is closely correlated with the environmental conditions. Each coral assemblage in different habitat has its own distinguishing temporal pattern of species composition and abundance distribution.

    Grasshopper Species-Area Relationship on Ungrazed and Overgrazed Grasslands
    KANG LE, ZHANG MINGZHAO
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  15-22.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996042
    Abstract ( 2823 )   PDF (276KB) ( 2132 )   Save
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    The species richness and abundance of rangeland grasshoppers were investigated at 6 sites of ungrazed and overgrazed pastures in Inner Mongolia during the autumn of 1994. The ungrazed sites supported higher richness and density of grasshoppers than the overgrazed sites. The effects of overgrazing and ungrazing on the species-area relationships of grasshoppers were directly measured. The grasshopper assemblages from the 6 sites differed significantly in the intercept or in the slopes of their species-area regressions. The greater intercept and slope values of their species-area regression were found in grasshopper assemblages on ungrazed sites. In contrast to species-area relationship regression, the species increase rate with individual number was more rapid at overgrazed sites. Implications for conservation are discussed.

    Maintaining Biodiversity in Freshwater Ecosystems on Oceanic Islands of the Tropical Pacific
    FITZSIMONS J. MICHAEL, NISHIMOTO ROBERT T., DEVICK WILLIAM S.
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  23-27.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996043
    Abstract ( 2220 )   PDF (191KB) ( 2460 )   Save
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    Stream animals on tropical high islands have ecological counterparts among continental fauna but are confronted with highly dynamic and variable environmental conditions that can far exceed those occurring in mainland streams. In response to weather fronts passing through an island chain or to localized fluctuations in the formation of orographie rain, water levels in island streams can change from low flows of a few centimeters depth to sudden flash floods of several meters and back to clear shallow water within a few days. Studies of the five species of indigenous Hawaiian stream fishes have shown that the dispersal of larvae out to sea and their return several months later during their amphidromons life cycles constantly restock streams and provide a kind of ready reserve for recolonizing streams after unusually harsh disturhances, such as the recent Hurricane Iniki. Because of the predominance of amphidromy among the major species of stream fishes and macroinvertebrates on tropical Pacific high islands, we hypothesize that maintaining biodiversity in these island streams when conditions are otherwise favorable and restoring animal life to formerly diverted streams may be no more complicated than assuring that the freshwater-marine threshold remains open and that natural fluctuations in flow are unhampered.

    The Taolimiao-Alashan Nur: its Wetland Bird Community and the Wetland Habitat Assessment
    HE FENQI, ZHANG YINSUN
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  28-35.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996044
    Abstract ( 2918 )   PDF (271KB) ( 2465 )   Save
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    Results of the field work in recent years reveal that the Taolimiao-Alashan Nur is of specific significance to the survival of the Relict Gull Ordos subpopulation while the wetland birds occurring there represent concentratedly and indicatively the characteristics of the wetland bird community in desert of Ordos; as in July of 1992 China became the contract nation of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habit at (The Ramsar Convention), the study also presents an as- sessment on the wetland habitat of the T-A Nur following the Criteria recommended by the Coonvention and suggests that the T-A Nur following the relevant articles/items of the Criteria might be considered as an important wetland locality in China and hence to be listed on List of Wetlands of International Importance.

    The Conservation Status of Hong Kong's Tree Flora
    ZHUANG XUEYING, RICHARD T. CORLETT
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  36-43.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996045
    Abstract ( 2414 )   PDF (278KB) ( 3216 )   Save
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    Since 1840, 333 native tree species have been recorded in Hong Kong. However, as a result of past and present land use practices, many forest tree tax a are in danger of extinction. Since the late 1970s, a systematic conservation system has been established in Hong Kong. Most of the forest and many plant species are protected by law. This paper reports the current conservation status of the tree flora of Hong Kong, based on a study of forest ecology and floristics between 1989 - 1996. The relevance of Hong Kong's experience to the conservation of China's tree flora is also briefly discussed.

    The Current Status of Bird Diversity in Yunnan Province
    YANG LAN, WEN XIANJI, YANG XIAOJUN
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  44-50.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996046
    Abstract ( 2890 )   PDF (256KB) ( 2575 )   Save
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    Yunnan is the richest province in bird species in China. Seven hundred and ninety-two species of birds were recorded in Yunnan before 1994, accounted for 63.6% of the records in China. Among them, one hundred and twenty-seven species were very rare, two hundred and eighty-eight species were rare, two hundred and fourty-two species were common and thirty-five species were large in number. In China, Podargidae and Hemiproenidae were only recorded in Yunnan, Trogonidae, Bucerotidae, Eurylaimidae, Pittidae, Campephagidae, Irenidae, Dicruridae, Timaliinae, Dieaeidae and Neetariniidae mainly distributed in Yunnan, and one hundred and twelve species were only recorded from Yunnan. One hundred and thirty-six species belonged to the nation' s prior protectted wildlife. Their status in Yunnan were: five species extinct, seven species endangered, five species vulnerable, ninety-eight species rare and twentty-one species common. Twenty-five species were listed in 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Anser anser and A. indicus were the province's prioor protected birds. Thirty nature reserves have played an important role in protecting birds and their habitats, especially Xishuangbanna, Gaoligongshan, Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan. The public education about the protection of birds and their habitats has been made universal since 1982. It is important to protect their habitats both inside and outside nature reserves and recover of destroyed habitats. Illegal hunting and capturing must be prohibited, breeding of economic birds in captivity should be started, and the education concerning the protection of birds and their habitats must be continued.

    Current Status of Alligator sinensis
    LI CHENYUAN, SHAO MIN, ZHU HONGXIN, NIE JISHAN
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  51-56.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996047
    Abstract ( 2455 )   PDF (229KB) ( 1995 )   Save
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    The status about the resources of Alligator sinensis was investigated by sampling methods from August to September in 1994. In the National Nature Reserve for Chinese Alligator (ANNRCA) in Anhui, 156 marking caves of alligators were found, 77 alligators were seen by lighting-counting method and 253 by visiting. Analysing the results above, there were probably 667- 740 alligators in ANNRCA and the population age pyramid was wide at the top and narrow at the base, which indicated that the survival situation of the population was serious. In the Chinese Alligator Reproduction Research Center of Anhui Province (CARRCAP), there were 4376 alligators by the end of the year 1994, of which 248 were breeding alligators, 1542 recently hatched and 2586 off different ages. The population with an age pyramid that is narrow at the top and wide at the base shows that it has fast growing potential.

    A Preliminary Investigation on the Status of the Wildlife Trade in Guangxi, China
    LI YIMING, LI DIANMO
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  57-63.  doi:10.17520/biods.1996048
    Abstract ( 2323 )   PDF (236KB) ( 2544 )   Save
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    Wildlife trade is a main impetus for wildlife hunting. There are 91 species of animals, involved in the wildlife trade in Guangxi, China, including 40 species of mammals, 17 species of birds, 32 species of reptiles and 2 species of amphibians. Thirty-five species, including 21 species of mammals, 8 species of birds and 6 species of reptiles, are the animals under state's special protection. Thirty species are involved in the wildlife trade between China and Vietnam. There are 55 species involved in live wildlife trade: Thirty-nine species of wildlife are used as food or raw materials for medicinaal liquor. Thirty-four species are used as medieinal materials. And 31 species (not including snakes) are used as raw materials. There are 9 species uused as pets. The species richness involved in the wildlife trade in Guangxi tends to increasel Wildlife trade has caused the endangerment of many species and the decline of wildlife resources in Guangxi. The live wildlife trade between China and Vietnam can bring about an invasion of exotic species to China. It is suggested that the changes of species and volume involved in the wildlife trade should be monitored and the live wildlife trade between China and Vietnam should be prohibited in Guangxi.

    Current Major Activities on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity
    Jeffrey A. McNeely
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  64-75. 
    Abstract ( 1750 )   PDF (470KB) ( 2218 )   Save
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    China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED)
    WANG SUNG
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  76-88. 
    Abstract ( 1690 )   PDF (489KB) ( 2215 )   Save
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    The Legislation for Biodiversity Conservation in China
    XUE DAYUAN
    Biodiv Sci. 1996, 04 (Suppl.):  89-96. 
    Abstract ( 2213 )   PDF (288KB) ( 2967 )   Save
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    Biodiversity conservation depends on a sound legislation in both international and national levels. China has promulgated a series of laws and regulations concerning biodiversity conservation, especially for protection of wild animals and other natural resources. As the enforcement of the statutes, a great progress for in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation has been achieved. But some gaps for the legislation are still existed. Based on the present status of conservation legislation in China and in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, an attention for the legislation should be paid to conservation of genetic resources, wild plant species and various natural ecosystems.


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