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Table of Content
    Volume 11 Issue 3
    20 May 2003
    Species composition and diversity of scarab beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) communities at Dongling Mountain, Beijing
    YU Xiao-Dong, LUO Tian-Hong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  179-187.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003024
    Abstract ( 2781 )   PDF (364KB) ( 2573 )   Save
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    We investigated the species composition and distribution of the scarab beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) community in Dongling Mountain (39°48′~40°02′ N, 115°24′~115°36′ E), 114 km to the west of Beijing. Three sites containing 11 plots were selected to reflect the effect of vegetation, elevation and human disturbance on scarab beetle communities. During the growing seasons of 1998 to 2000, a total of 1721 scarab beetles were captured. Six genera and 20 species of saprophages and 20 genera and 26 species of phytophages accounted for 89.2% and 10.8% of total beetle specimens, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to analyze the phytophagous and saprophagous scarab species. Similar results were obtained: the 11 plots were grouped into three categories: the shrubs at low elevation (Liyuanling), forests at low elevation (forests in Xiaolongmen and coppices Liyuanling), and alpine vegetation (the top of Dongling Mountain). This indicates that vegetation and elevation may be important factors that influence the distribution of scarab beetles in Dongling Mountain. Species diversity ( H′), species richness ( S ) and number of individuals were computed for the three categories: all were highest in shrubs and the lowest in alpine vegetation. Species evenness ( J ) of the three categories showed a complicated patterns of variation: for the saprophagous assemblage, the highest value was observed in forests and the lowest one in alpine vegetation; for the phytophagous assemblage, the highest value was in alpine vegetation and the lowest was in shrubs. The co-occurrence between common species was analyzed. For saprophagous species, Caccobius sibiricus was positively correlated to Liatongus phanaeoides and Onthophagus sp1., but all of them were negatively correlated to Onthophagus sinicus. For phytophagous species, Serica orientalis and Brahmina faldermanni showed a significantly positive correlation, and Trichoserica heydeni, Trichoserica heydeni and Clinterocera mandarina were another positively correlated group. Positive or negative correlations between these species were consistent with their abundance in the different habitats and reflect similarities and differences in their habitat preferences.
    Community structure and species diversity of fig wasps from Ficus altissima
    GU Hai-Yan, YANG Da-Rong
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  188-196.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003025
    Abstract ( 2680 )   PDF (376KB) ( 2475 )   Save
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    We collected fruits from five individual trees of Ficus altissima in both rainy and dry seasons in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan. We then identified the fig wasps collected from each of the fruits. Of more than 18 000 wasp samples, 14 species were identified, belonging to nine genera of five families. Among them, one species was a pollinator and 13 species were non-pollinators. The wasp community composition and structure differed greatly in rainy and dry seasons. In rainy season, the fruits supported more wasp species than in dry season. There are more wasp species in less disturbed areas than in seriously disturbed ones. The results also indicated that major non pollinators were gall makers, and only a small proportion of them were parasitoids and inquilines. The species diversity index of the wasp community was low all the year round, nevertheless the number of wasp species was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. The results also showed that the similarity of fig wasp communities between two individual trees was moderate in the same season and very low in different seasons. The sex ratio (male/female) of the pollinator species was low (0.14:1), but the sex ratios of non-pollinators were about 1:1. The results revealed that the seasonal change in weather and habitat fragmentation can affect community structure of the fig wasp in Xishuangbanna, which might have important implications for environmental conservation and restoration in Xishuangbanna.
    Genetic diversity in small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) by RAPD analysis
    MENG Zi-Ning, ZHUANG Zhi-Meng, JIN Xian-Shi, TANG Qi-Sheng, SU Yong-Quan
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  197-203.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003026
    Abstract ( 3081 )   PDF (308KB) ( 2237 )   Save
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    Pseudosciaena polyactis is a commercially important fish species which is widely distributed in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the northern part of the East China Sea. Forty-eight individuals of P. polyactis from five sampling areas in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to determine the genetic variation among and within the stocks. A total of 145 loci were amplified using 20 random primers, of which 132 loci (91.03%) were polymorphic. Genetic diversity quantified by Shannon index varied from 1.50 to 2.44 with an average of 1.93. Partition of genetic variation indicated that 69% was distributed within stocks and 31% among stocks. The average genetic similarity and genetic distance were 0.9139 and 0.0861, respectively. Cluster analysis by UPGMA indicated that these five stocks might be divided into three groups. Results of RAPD analysis suggested extensive genetic diversity exists in this species and the genetic divergence among stocks is relatively high. The UPGMA dendrogram showed that there existed three geographic populations of P. polyactis in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, which supports previous conclusions based on morphological and ecological methods.
    Macrobenthos in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea
    LI Rong-Guan, ZHENG Feng-Wu, JIANG Jin-Xiang, ZHENG Cheng-Xing, HUANG Xin-Guang, HUANG Xiang-Ling, XU Hui-Zhou
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  204-215.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003027
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (600KB) ( 2175 )   Save
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    Species diversity, quantity, distribution and community of macrobenthos are analyzed in this paper. The materials were collected from 16 stations in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea in Summer 1999. For quantitative analysis, samples were collected by a 30 cm×30 cm box sampler. There were in all 92 families and 164 species, of which Polychaeta comprised 62 species, Mollusca 42, Crustacea 37, Echinodermata 14 and other groups 9 species. Polychaeta, Mollusca and Crustacea occupy 88.41% of all species. Cossurella sp., Tharyx sp., Maldane sarai, Nephtys caeca, Phascolion sp., Ennucula tenuis, Nuculana pernula pernuloides, Clinocardium (Ciliatocardium) ciliatum, Asthenothaerus sp., Eudorella pacifica, Lepidepecreum sp., Harpiniopsis sp., Byblis japonicus, and Ophiura sarsii were dominant species and key species. The average biomass was 111.83 g/m2,and individual density was 2538 inds./m2 in Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea.Five macrobenthic commumities from Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea are recorded in this paper. They are Community Ⅰ. Scalibregma inflatum-Polycheira rufescens-Stegophiura nodosa, Ⅱ. Cossurella sp. -Ennucula tenuis-Lepidepecreum sp., Ⅲ. Maldane sarai-Hippomedon gorbunovi Ophiura sarsii, Ⅳ. Nephtys sp. -Ennucula tenuis -Byblis japonicus-Golfingica sp., and the Community of the Bering Sea, Lumbrineris fragilis-Asthenothaerus sp. -Eudorella pacifica-Phascolion sp. Commumity of the Bering Sea and Communities Ⅰ and Ⅱ in Chukchi Sea are relatively stable, but disturbance characterizes Communities Ⅲ and Ⅳ in the Chukchi Sea.
    Analysis on the structure and function of the bird communities in Trema orientalis forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan
    WANG Zhi-Jun, CAO Min, LI Guo-Feng
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  216-222.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003028
    Abstract ( 3048 )   PDF (278KB) ( 2226 )   Save
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    Trema orientalis forest is an early stage of secondary succession of tropical forest in Xishuangbanna. The relationship between birds and Trema orientalis forest is important to biodiversity conservation and forest regeneration. We used the line transect method to study the structure and function of the bird community in the T. orientalis forest. Within T. orientalis forest, 10 line transects were established, each 100 m long and 10 m wide, to give a total area of one hectare. Within each line, those trees with abundant flowers or fruits were used as focal points for netting birds. Forty five species of birds from seven trophic groups, belonging to 24 genera and 11 families, have been recorded in the T. orientalis forest. All of these bird species ate fruits of T. orientalis except five species of insectivore and four species of seed/insect eaters. The richness of bird species increased with the quantity of T. orientalis fruits. There was also a close relationship between the phenological stages of the T. orientalis and the composition of the bird community associated with it. Furthermore, the parameter of bird diversity ( H′) increased, and the parameter of evenness ( J ) decreased during the peak in ripe fruit abundance of T. orientalis , because the birds were attracted by the fruits and concentrated at those trees that were rich with ripe fruits. Occurrence of insectivorous and seed/insect eating bird species was related to the structure of the forest; they were attracted by insects that feed on the fruits of T. orientali. The T. orientalis forest supports the bird community, and in return, the birds help to pollinate the flowers, disperse the seeds and control insects. As the pioneer trees of T. orientalis are short-lived, after a few years successional woody trees will replace them. Therefore, diverse birds associated with the trees of the orientalis forest may be helpful to natural succession in this ecosystem. It is important to consider the role of birds in the dynamic process of ecological succession.
    The distribution characteristics and invasive route of Cabomba caroliniana in China
    DING Bing-Yang, YU Ming-Jian, JIN Xiao-Feng, YU Jian, JIANG Wei-Mei, DONG KeFeng
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  223-230.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003029
    Abstract ( 2728 )   PDF (322KB) ( 2892 )   Save
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    Cabomba caroliniana is a perennial aquatic plant which was originally distributed in North and South America. During investigation in wild fields, it has been found to be a naturalized species. Many actual surveys have been carried out in eastern, southern and central China, including over 300 investigation plots in more than 80 counties (cities) of 10 provinces (municipalities). The results showed that 67 spots had cabomba. At present, the distribution of cabomba in China is restricted to networks of rivers and small lakes in the Hangjiahu Plain (N. Zhejiang), the Ningshao Plain (N.Zhejiang), the drainage area of Taihu Lake (S. Jiangsu), and Diangshanhu (W. Shanghai), with the range of latitude from 29°33′7″ N to 31°35′2″ N. C. caroliniana often occurs in small rivers and lakes whereever the main water bodies are fit for its habitation. Considering that its seeds lack mature embryos and the fronds are susceptible to dehydration, cabomba was probably introduced as an aquarium ornamental plant into China and then escaped. There are 21 species of aquatic plants, belonging to 18 genera and 8 families, in water bodies inhabited by cabomba, and most of plants co-existing with cabomba are Ceratophyllum demersum(percentage of co-appearance,PC =51.33%),Vallisneria natans( PC =45.05%),Hydrilla verticillata( PC =36.56%) and Potamogeton crispus( PC =35.64%), which implies communities with these plants are easily invaded by cabomba. Cabomba is the dominant species in some investigation spots, while other populations are just beginning to be established, indicating that cabomba is now dispersing further. Considering the similarity of environment and climate of its native place, cabomba could be capable of spreading over a large range in China. If we do not bear the fast painful lessons produced by the Eichhornia crassipes in mind, we will surely repeat the same mistake.
    On traditional uses of plants by the Nu people community of the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province
    DAO Zhi-Ling, LONG Chun-Lin, LIU Yi-Tao
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  231-239.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003030
    Abstract ( 3140 )   PDF (313KB) ( 2740 )   Save
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    We studied the traditional uses of plants for different purposes by the Nu people in north Gaoligong Mountains region, northwestern Yunnan, through the approaches of ethnobiology, cultural anthropology and plant ecology. The results show that the Nu people traditionally use plants for food, herbal medicine, ornament, religious worship, and culture. Most of the plants are used for individual household consumption and some for exchanging with other nationalities or selling at local markets. Indigenous Nu people have been depending on plants for survival and development for a long time. Traditionally, wild plant resources play a very important role in the Nu people communities. Up to now, herbal plants are still the main medicine used by the Nu people. Fifty-four species of edible plants, 53 species of medicinal plants, 54 species of ornamental plants, and 51 species of cultural and religious plants frequently used by Nu people were listed in the present paper, as well as the impact of traditional culture upon utilization and management of local plant diversity. The relationship between traditional and modern management of plant diversity is discussed. The possibility, necessity and feasibility to utilize indigenous cultural diversity for ecological and environmental conservation in China are discussed and proposed. In addition, we suggest that the indigenous resource management knowledge and culture diversity should be conserved and extensively studied.
    Fundamentals of invasive species biology and ecology
    HUANG Jian-Hui, HAN Xing-Guo, YANG Qin-Er, BAI Yong-Fei
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  240-247.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003031
    Abstract ( 2867 )   PDF (267KB) ( 3108 )   Save
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    The impact of invasive species on native species, communities and ecosystems has been widely recognized. There must be some prerequisites for an alien species to invade a new environment, although the research on this aspect is still in a preliminary stage. Firstly, an invasive species must be invasive enough in itself or has some biological distinction, such as quantitative and qualitative differences in the genome, or patterns of recombination. Secondly, to invade successfully, a new environment for an invasive species must be invasible, and this we may call the ecological basis of invasion. An invasive species may need to establish new interactions with other species, especially those mutualistic relations such as animal-related pollination, seed dispersal by animals, mycorrhizal fungi, and symbioses between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In this article, we review some advances in research of invasive biology and ecology in order to facilitate relevant research in China and prevent dispersal and expansion of some harmful invasive species.
    〗How to trace seeds and fruits dispersed by frugivorous animals: a review
    XIAO Zhi-Shu, ZHANG Zhi-Bin
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  248-255.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003032
    Abstract ( 2718 )   PDF (319KB) ( 2275 )   Save
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    One of the most important obstacles to studying seed dispersal by frugivorous animals is the difficulty in tracking seed fates and estimating seed shadows. So far, many tracing techniques have been applied to study the relationships between frugivorous animals and seed dispersal and seed fates, e.g. direct observation, radioisotope labeling, metal or magnet tagging, fluorescent powders or microspheres, line-marked method, and genetic techniques. More recently, there is a preference for tracing techniques using numbered codes to label seeds and fruits. The present paper reviews some important techniques for tracing seed fates and estimating seed shadows influenced by frugivorous animals, and discusses their advantages, disadvantages and applications.
    Buffer zones: pattern, function and design principles
    YU Guang-Zhi, JIANG Zhi-Gang
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (3):  256-261.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003033
    Abstract ( 3135 )   PDF (229KB) ( 2788 )   Save
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    To set up nature reserves is an important approach to in situ conservation of biodiversity. However, there are many problems in the practice of designing nature reserves, and the most serious one is design of the boundaries of the nature reserves, especially those separating intensively used land from strictly protected natural areas. It is necessary to prevent the influences of human activities on the protected core areas in order to conserve the biodiversity in the reserve. To resolve the problem, establishing buffer zones in nature reserves was suggested. The idea was accepted by the Man and Biosphere (MAB) in their Biosphere Reserve Programme and was put into wide practice. Nowadays, as an integrated functional part of a nature reserve, a buffer zone has both functions of ecological buffer and social buffer. Buffer zones can not only protect from the human influences and pollutants, but also provide a migration corridor for wildlife and serve as a base for research and monitoring. In this paper, we review the definition, pattern, types and development of buffer zones, and summarize the principles for designing buffer zones. Finally, we discuss the current circumstances of buffer zones in our country.

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