Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 490-497.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016268

;

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

The outstanding universal value and conservation of the Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site

Zongqiang Xie*(), Guozhen Shen, Youbing Zhou, Dayong Fan, Wenting Xu, Xianming Gao, Yanjun Du, Gaoming Xiong, Changming Zhao, Yan Zhu, Jiangshan Lai   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environment Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2016-09-20 Accepted:2017-01-20 Online:2017-06-06
  • Xie Zongqiang E-mail:xie@ibcas.ac.cn

World Natural Heritage site is recognized globally as the pinnacle of natural protected areas that are the cornerstones of biodiversity conservation. The World Natural Heritage of Shennongjia represents one of the worldwide biodiversity hotspots. But, until now, it has not been clear how outstanding the universal value of Shennongjia is worldwide, and this study presents one of the most compelling challenges to conservation efforts. Here, we compiled literature and conducted additional field surveys in the Shennongjia region to illustrate the outstanding universal value of Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site using World Heritage criteria (ix) and (x), following the operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Results show that the heritage of Shennongjia offers an outstanding example of the ongoing ecological processes occurring in the development of intact subtropical mixed broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. This region presents a typical example of mountain altitudinal biological zones in the Oriental Deciduous Forest Biogeographical Province. Shennongjia is also a vital origin location for global temperate flora, and harbors the highest concentration of global temperate genera of trees. Moreover, the heritage of Shennongjia displays exceptional biodiversity and is a key habitat for numerous relic, rare, endangered and endemic species. The richness of deciduous woody species in Shennongjia is the highest in the world. Our study provides great insight into protecting, monitoring and managing the outstanding world heritage in the Northern Hemisphere.

Key words: mountain altitudinal zones, deciduous woody species, corridor, stepping stones, wildlife crossing, biological and ecological process, biodiversity and habitat

Fig. 1

The map of Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site"

Table 1

Statistics of plant species endemic to Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site"

门类
Category
神农架特有种
Endemic to Shennongjia
中国特有种
Endemic to China
蕨类植物 Pteridophyta 9 86
裸子植物 Gymnospermae 1 31
被子植物 Angiospermae 195 1,676
总计 Total 205 1,793

Table 2

Statistics of the plants of type specimens in Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site"

门类 Category 科 Family 属 Genera 种数 Species
蕨类植物 Pteridophyta 8 14 22
裸子植物 Gymnospermae 2 4 5
被子植物 Angiospermae 78 245 496
总计 Total 88 263 523

Table 3

Statistics of rare and endangered plants in Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site"

门类 Category IUCN Red List (2014) CITES (2014) 国家保护野生植物名录
List of national protected plants
极危(CR) 濒危(EN) 易危(VU) Ⅰ级AppendixⅠ Ⅱ级Appendix II Ⅰ级Class I Ⅱ级Class II
蕨类植物 Pteridophyta 0 2 4 0 0 0 1
裸子植物 Gymnospermae 0 0 5 2 0 2 7
被子植物 Angiospermae 7 31 61 14 78 18 139
合计 Total 7 33 70 16 78 20 147

Table 4

Statistics of rare and endangered animals in ShennongjiaWorld Natural Heritage Site"

门类 Class IUCN (2014) CITES (2014) 中国物种红色名录(2015)
China Species Red List (2015)
国家重点保护野生动物名录(1988)
National Key Protected Wild Animals List (1988)
I I
哺乳类 Mammals 16 8 5 19 4 11
鸟类Birds 19 4 53 21 3 61
爬行类 Reptiles 3 0 2 14 0 0
两栖类 Amphibians 8 1 1 9 0 2
鱼类 Fishes 2 0 0 10 0 0
总计 Total 48 13 61 73 7 74
[44] [应俊生, 马成功, 张志松 (1979) 鄂西神农架地区的植被和植物区系. 植物分类学报, 3, 41-60.]
[45] Zhang Y, Liu J, Zhu CQ (2015) IUCN Green List of Protected Areas: introduction, progress, opportunities and challenges for protected areas in China. Biodiversity Science, 23, 437-439. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张琰, 刘静, 朱春全 (2015) 自然保护地绿色名录: 内容、进展及为中国自然保护地带来的机遇和挑战. 生物多样性, 23, 437-439.]
[46] Zhao CM (2002) Vegetation of Shennongjia Mountainous Region and Its Plant Species Diversity and Vertical Distribution Pattern—Addictive to Discussion About the Vegetation Zonation in Middle and Northern Subtropical Subzone in China. PhD dissertation, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵常明 (2002) 神农架植被及其生物多样性与垂直分布格局——兼论中国中、北亚热带植被带的划分. 博士学位论文, 中国科学院植物研究所, 北京.]
[47] Zhao ZZ, He PY (1997)Quaternary Glaciation and Environment in Shennongjia. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[赵志中, 何培元 (1997) 神农架第四纪冰期与环境. 地质出版社, 北京.]
[48] Zheng Z, Zhan YH, Xie JL (1997) Shennongjia, China. Hubei Science and Technology Publishing House, Wuhan. (in Chinese)
[郑重, 詹亚华, 谢继伦 (1997)中国神农架. 湖北科学技术出版社, 武汉.]
[49] Zhu C, Chen X, Zhang GS, Ma CM, Zhu Q, Li ZX, Xu WF (2008) Spore-pollen-climate factor transfer function and paleoenvironment reconstruction in Dajiuhu, Shennongjia, Central China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(Suppl.), 42-49.
[50] Zhu ZQ, Hu ZL, Yang QR, He DG, Li JP (1992) The number distribution and population structure of golden monkey in Shennongjia Natural Reserve. Journal of Central China Normal University, 3, 79-82. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[朱兆泉, 胡振林, 杨其仁, 贺德贵, 李巨平 (1992) 神农架自然保护区金丝猴数量、分布及种群结构. 华中师范大学学报, 3, 79-82.]
[51] Zhu ZQ, Song ZS (1999) Scientific survey of Shennongjia Nature Reserve. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[朱兆泉, 宋朝枢 (1999)神农架自然保护区科学考察集. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
[1] Ban JD, Qi GS (1995) Vegetation in Western Hubei. Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press, Wuhan. (in Chinese)
[班继德, 漆根深 (1995) 鄂西植被研究. 华中理工大学出版社, 武汉.]
[2] Braun EL (1950) Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. Macmillan, New York.
[3] Cardinale B, Duffy E, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, Narwani A, Mace GM, Tilman D, Wardle DA, Kinzig AP, Daily GC, Loreau M, Grace JB, Larigauderie A, Srivastava DS, Naeem S (2012) Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature, 486, 59-67.
[4] Chapin FS, Zavaleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Reynolds HL, Hooper DU, Lavorel SL, Sala OE, Hobbie SE, Mack MC, Diaz S (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature, 405, 234-242.
[5] Chun ML, Xie ZQ, Zhao CM, Fan DY, Xu XW, Ping L (2009) Litter production and nutrient characteristics of Abies fargesii natural forest in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei, China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 33, 492-498. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[春敏莉, 谢宗强, 赵常明, 樊大勇, 徐新武, 平亮 (2009) 神农架巴山冷杉天然林凋落量及养分特征. 植物生态学报, 33, 492-498.]
[6] Costanza R, Arge R, Groot RD, Farbe S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, Oneill RV, Paruelo Jose, Raskin RG, Sutton P, Belt MA (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253-260.
[7] Deng T, Kim C, Zhang DG, Zhang JW, Li ZM, Nie ZL, Sun H (2013) Zhengyia shennongensis: a new bulbiliferous genus and species of the nettle family (Urticaceae) from Central China exhibiting parallel evolution of the bulbil trait. Taxon, 62, 89-99.
[8] Dosmann M, Tredici PD (2003) Plant introduction, distribution, and survival: a case study of the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition. BioScience, 6, 588-597.
[9] Dosmann M, Tredici PD (2005) The Sino-American Botanical Expedition of 1980: a retrospective analysis of success. Hortscience, 2, 302-303.
[10] Editorial Committee of Vegetation Atlas of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences(2007) 1: 1000000 Vegetation Atlas of People’s Republic of China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院中国植被图编辑委员会(2007) 中华人民共和植被图(1: 1000000). 地质出版社, 北京.]
[11] Fei L (2006) Fauna of China, Amphibia. Vol.1. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[费梁 (2006) 中国动物志·两栖纲(上卷). 科学出版社, 北京.]
[12] He JS, Chen WL, Liu F (1998) Study on the sprouting process of Fagus engleriana in Shennongjia Mountains. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 22, 385-391. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[贺金生, 陈伟烈, 刘峰 (1998) 神农架地区米心水青冈萌枝过程的研究. 植物生态学报, 22, 385-391.]
[13] Joppa LN, Loarie SR, Pimm SL (2008) On the protection of protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 6673-6678.
[14] Lavergne S, Mouquet N, Thuiller W, Ronce O (2010) Biodiversity and climate change: integrating evolutionary and ecological responses of species and communities. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 41, 321-350.
[15] Li WH (2013) Contemporary Ecology Research in China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[李文华 (2013) 中国当代生态学研究. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[16] Li WY (1993) Study on Vegetation and Environment in Late Quaternary in North and Middle Subtropical Region, China. Ocean Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[李文漪 (1993) 中国北、中亚热带晚第四纪植被与环境研究. 海洋出版社, 北京.]
[17] Li YM, Liao MY, Yu J, Yang JY (2005) Effects of annual change in group size, human disturbances and weather on daily travel distance of a group in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Biodiversity Science, 13, 432-438. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李义明, 廖明尧, 喻杰, 杨敬元 (2005) 社群大小的年变化、气候和人类活动对神农架自然保护区川金丝猴日移动距离的影响. 生物多样性, 13, 432-438.]
[18] Liu L, Shen GZ, Chen FQ, Luo L, Xie ZQ, Yu J (2012) Dynamic characteristics of litterfall and nutrient return in four types of forests along an elevational gradient in Shennongjia, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 32, 2142-2149. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘蕾, 申国珍, 陈芳清, 罗璐, 谢宗强, 喻杰 (2012) 神农架海拔梯度上4种典型森林凋落物现存量及其养分循环动态. 生态学报, 32, 2142-2149.]
[19] Luo L, Shen GZ, Xie ZQ, Zhou LG (2011) Components of soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in four types of forests along an elevational gradient in Shennongjia, China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 35, 722-730. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[罗璐, 申国珍, 谢宗强, 周利光 (2011b) 神农架海拔梯度上4种典型森林的土壤呼吸组分及其对温度的敏感性. 植物生态学报, 35, 722-730.]
[20] Ma KP (2016) Conservation of world natural heritage should be ensured and its contribution to local sustainable development promoted. Biodiversity Science, 24, 861-862.
(in Chinese) [马克平 (2016) 世界自然遗产既要加强保护也要适度利用. 生物多样性, 24, 861-862. ]
[21] Mao KS, Milne RI, Zhang LB, Peng YL, Liu JQ, Thomas P, Mill PR, Renner SS (2012) Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 109, 7793-7798.
[22] Nakashizuka T, Matsumoto Y (2002) Diversity and Interaction in A Temperate Forest Community: Ogawa Forest Reserve of Japan. Springer, Berlin.
[23] Pouzols FM, Toivonen T, Minin ED, Kukkala AS, Kullberg P, Kuustera J, Lehtomaki J, Tenkanen H, Verburg PH, Moilanen A (2014) Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism. Nature, 516, 383-386.
[24] Primack RB, Ma KP (2010) Essentials of Conservation Biology. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[Primack RB, 马克平 (2010) 保护生物学简明教程. 高等教育出版社, 北京.]
[25] Qin WH, Li ZL, Wang Z, Qian ZD, Zhou DQ, Zhang HN, Zhang JN (2017) Overview of China Nature Reserve. Life World, (2), 10-35. (in Chinese)
[秦卫华, 李中林, 王智, 钱者东, 周大庆, 张昊楠, 张建亮 (2017) 中国自然保护区大观. 生命世界, (2), 10-35.]
[26] Sayre AP (1994) Temperate Deciduous Forest. Twenty-First Century Books, New York.
[27] Shen GZ, Pimm SL, Feng CY, Ren GF, Liu YP, Xu WT, Li JQ, Si XF, Xie ZQ (2015) Climate change challenges the current conservation strategy for the giant panda. Biological Conservation, 190, 43-50.
[28] Shen ZH, Hu HF, Zhou Y, Fang JY (2004) Altitudinal patterns of plant species diversity on the southern slope of Mt. Shennongjia, Hubei, China. Biodiversity Science, 12, 99-107. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[沈泽昊, 胡会峰, 周宇, 方精云 (2004) 神农架南坡植物群落多样性的海拔梯度格局. 生物多样性, 12, 99-107.]
[29] Song F, Zhu JJ, Li YF (2009) Retrospection on the “integrity” principle of world heritage—review of the 4 concepts of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Chinese Landscape Architecture, (5), 14-18. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[宋峰, 祝佳杰, 李雁飞 (2009) 世界遗产“完整性”原则的再思考——基于《实施世界遗产公约的操作指南》中4个概念的辨析. 中国园林, (5), 14-18.]
[30] Tilman D, Isbell F, Cowles JM (2014) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 45, 471-493.
[31] Udvardy MD (1975) A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. INCN paper No. 18. pp. 20-21. Morges, Switzerland.
[32] UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2015) Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention.
[33] Wang XQ, Ma LY, Chen FJ, Jia JL, Guo BX (2007) An important exploration undertaking in Chinese modern science history: the first exploration in Shennongjia of Hubei Province in 1940s. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 6(2), 48-53. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王希群, 马履一, 陈发菊, 贾京黎, 郭保香 (2007) 中国现代科学史上的一次科学考察壮举——记20世纪40年代首次对湖北神农架的探察. 北京林业大学学报, 6(2), 48-53.]
[34] Watson JE, Dudley N, Segan DB, Hockings M (2014) The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature, 515, 67-73.
[35] Wu ZY (2010) Chinese Floristic Geography. Science Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [吴征镒 (2010)中国种子植物区系地理. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[36] Wuhan Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.(1980) Plants of Shennongjia.. Hubei People’s Press, Wuhan. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院武汉植物研究所(1980) 神农架植物. 湖北人民出版社, 武汉.]
[37] Wulff EB (Translated by Zhong CX, Lu DA, Shen ZA, Hong BG, Wu YS, Yao ZH, Zhou HB) (1964)Historical Plant Geography. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[吴鲁夫 (仲崇信, 陆定安, 沈祖安, 洪必恭, 吴玉树, 姚中和, 周鸿彬译) (1964) 历史植物地理学. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[38] Xiang ZF, Yu Y, Yang M, Yang JY, Liao MY, Li M (2011) Does flagship species tourism benefit conservation? A case study of the golden snub-nosed monkey in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. Chinese Science Bulletin, 56, 2553-2558.
[39] Xie ZQ, Shen GZ, Fan DY, Xiong GM, Zhang M (2007) The curiosity in the remote mountains and forest—National Field Station for Forest Ecosystems in Shennongjia (NFSFES). Life World, (10), 18-23. (in Chinese)
[谢宗强, 申国珍, 樊大勇, 熊高明, 张谧 (2007) 深山老林育奇葩——湖北神农架森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站. 生命世界, (10), 18-23.]
[40] Xu XL, Yang ZP, Saiken A, Rui S, Liu XY (2012) Natural Heritage value of Xinjiang Tianshan and global comparative analysis. Journal of Mountain Science, 9, 262-273.
[41] Yahner RH (1995) Eastern Deciduous Forests: Ecology and Wildlife Conservation. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
[42] Ying TS (2001) Species diversity and distribution pattern of seed plants in China. Biodiversity Science, 9, 393-398. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[应俊生 (2001) 中国种子植物物种多样性及其分布格局. 生物多样性, 9, 393-398.]
[43] Ying TS, Chen ML (2011)Plant Geography of China. Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers, Shanghai.
(in Chinese) [应俊生, 陈梦玲 (2011) 中国植物地理. 上海科学技术出版社, 北京.]
[44] Ying TS, Ma CG, Zhang ZS (1979) Vegetation and flora of Shennongjia region in western Hubei. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 3, 41-60. (in Chinese with English abstract)
No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Yang Shi-jie. Cytological and Histological Studies on Graft Union of Angiospermae[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(03): 1 -7 .
[2] Jinshan Wang;Umut Halik;*;Bernd Cyffka;Kurban Osman;Shuhong Peng. Study on DBH-structure of Populus euphratica and Their Spatial Distribution in the Lower Reaches of the Tarim River[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(06): 728 -733 .
[3] Liyan Yang, Rong Han. Effects of Ca2+ on Wheat Germination and Seedling Development Under Saline Stress[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(2): 155 -161 .
[4] WANG Bao-Shan;LI De-Quan;ZHAO Shi-Jie;MENG Qing-Wei and ZOU Qi. Effects of Iso-osmotic NaCl and KCl Stress on Growth and Gas Exchange of Sorghum Seedlings[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(04): 449 -453 .
[5] LI Xin-Lei CHEN Fa-Di. Preliminary Study on the Formation of Plants During Embryo Rescue of Hybrid Chrysanthemum[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(03): 337 -341 .
[6] ZHAO Ke-Fu;LI Fa-Zeng;FAN Shou-Jin and FENG Li-Tian. Halophytes in China[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(03): 201 -207 .
[7] LI Ai-Rong ZHOU Jian. Study of the Growth Cycle and Development of Lycoris chinensis Leaves[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(06): 680 -686 .
[8] ZHANG Zhong-Heng;ZHENG Yi-Zhi;DUAN Xiao-Gang and TONG De-Juan. Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Glutaraldehyde Concentration on the Labelling Density Immunochemical Localization of Protein - a Colloidal Gold Particles[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(增刊): 116 -118 .
[9] ZHONG Ze-Pu SHI Ding-Ji. Differentiation of Hormogonia from Filamentous Cyanobacteria and Their Regulation Mechanisms[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(03): 204 -210 .
[10] LI Yao-Dong WEI Yu-Ning XU Ben-Mei. Study on the ABA Content and SOD Activity in Ancient Lotus and Modern Lotus Seeds[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(05): 439 -442 .