Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 117-122.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019061

• Special Feature: China’s National Park System Construction •     Next Article

Institutional reform for building China’s national park system: Review and prospects

Wang Yi1, 2, *(), Huang Baorong1   

  1. 1 Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
    2 School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2019-04-08
  • Wang Yi E-mail:wangyi@casipm.ac.cn

Since the concept of National Park in China was put forward in 2013, the institutional reform for building China’s national park system has made important progress and become the fastest and the most iconic comprehensive reform in the entire reform of the ecological civilization system. In the past five years, China has completed a top-down design, clarified a management system, initiated relevant legislative procedures, and built the basic framework for national park system through pilot programs. There are four important experiences in the institutional reform. The first is the combination of high-level leadership and system innovation. The second is pilot first followed by dynamic adjustment. The third is the problem oriented and top-down design. The fourth is encouraging stakeholder participation to improve governance system. Though progress has been made, the reform still faces many challenges and difficulties, and has a long way to go. National park potential construction areas often have large populations, complex land ownership patterns, numerous stakeholders, lack of multi-participation mechanisms, and weak local management capabilities. In the future, based on the experiences of institutional reform, we should insist on the correct reform orientation, further expand openness and innovate thinking, and follow the basic principles of system promotion, classification guidance, and phased implementation. We should combine top-down design with pilot programs, to establish national park system legally, scientifically, democratically and openly, to accelerate national park legislation, to establish a modern governance system, and to explore value realization mechanism of ecological products produced in national parks. In this way, the natural protected areas system with national parks as the backbone will be protected as a whole, the interests of the people will be maximized, and the harmonious development between man and nature will be realized.

Key words: institutional reform for national park, review and prospects, experience、problems and challenges, recommendations

Table 1

Population distribution in the ten pilot areas of the national park system"

试点区域
Pilot areas
乡镇数
Number of township
行政村数
Number of administrative villages
户数
Households
人口
Population (×104)
三江源 Three River Source 12 53 16,621 6.40
神农架 Shennongjia 8 - - 8.00
大熊猫 Giant Panda 160 - - 23.2
东北虎豹 Northeast Tiger Leopard 19 417 37,724 9.30
钱江源 Qianjiangyuan 4 19 - 0.97
武夷山 Wuyishan 5 25 - 3.00
南山 Nanshan 6 33 - 2.36
普达措 Potatso - - 429 0.23
祁连山 Qilianshan 53 256 - 8.80
长城 Great Wall - - 4,119 0.79
合计 Total - - - 63.05

Table 2

Land ownership structure in the ten pilot areas of the national park system"

试点区域
Pilot areas
总面积
Total area (km2)
国有土地
Nation-owned land (%)
集体土地
Collective land (%)
三江源 Three River Source 123,100 100 0
神农架 Shennongjia 1,170 85.8 14.2
大熊猫 Giant Panda 27,134 - -
东北虎豹 Northeast Tiger Leopard 14,926 91.4 8.6
钱江源 Qianjiangyuan 252 20.4 79.6
武夷山 Wuyishan 982.59 28.74 71.3
南山 Nanshan 635.94 41.5 58.5
普达措 Potatso 300 78.1 21.9
祁连山 Qilianshan 50,200 - -
长城 Great Wall 59.91 50.61 49.39

Table 3

Number of different types of protected areas in the ten pilot areas of the national park system"

试点区域
Pilot areas
自然保护区
Nature reserves
风景名胜区
Scenic spots
森林公园
Forest parks
湿地公园
Wetland parks
地质公园
Geoparks
其他
Others
三江源 Three River Source 4 0 0 0 0 0
神农架 Shennongjia 2 1 1 1 1 0
大熊猫 Giant Panda 42 13 14 0 5 7
东北虎豹 Northeast Tiger Leopard 7 / 3 1 0 1
钱江源 Qianjiangyuan 1 1 1 0 0 0
武夷山 Wuyishan 1 1 1 0 0 1
南山 Nanshan 1 1 1 1 0 0
普达措 Potatso 1 1 0 0 0 1
祁连山 Qilianshan 3 0 4 1 0 0
长城 Great Wall 0 1 1 0 1 1
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