Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 182-188.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13163

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A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus) from East Asia using Maxent

Xi’ao Zhang1, 3, Xiaoyun Sui1, 2, *(), Zhi Lü2, Yifeng Chen1, *()   

  1. 1 The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2013-07-15 Accepted:2013-12-09 Online:2014-04-03
  • Sui Xiaoyun,Chen Yifeng E-mail:suixiaoyun@ihb.ac.cn;chenyf@ihb.ac.cn

The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

Key words: Carassius auratus, Pseudorasbora parva, potential distribution area, ecological risk, Maxent, biological invasion

Fig. 1

The results of the potential habitat prediction of Pseudorasbora parva (A) and Carassius auratus (B) in the world"

Fig. 2

The results of AUC test for Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus"

Appendix I

The name and description of WorldClim data"

代码 Code 数据描述 Data description
BIO1 年均温 Annual mean temperature
BIO2 平均温度月较差 Mean diurnal range
(月最高温与月最低温的平均差) (Mean of monthly (max temp–min temp))
BIO3 等温线 Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100)
BIO4 温度季节变化 Temperature seasonality (standard deviation *100)
BIO5 最暖月最高温度 Max temperature of warmest month
BIO6 最冷月最低温度 Min temperature of coldest month
BIO7 温度全年波动范围 Temperature annual range (BIO5–BIO6)
BIO8 最湿润季节平均温度 Mean temperature of wettest quarter
BIO9 最干燥季节平均温度 Mean temperature of driest quarter
BIO10 最暖月平均温度 Mean temperature of warmest month
BIO11 最冷月平均温度 Mean temperature of coldest month
BIO12 年降水量 Annual precipitation
BIO13 最湿润月降雨量 Precipitation of wettest month
BIO14 最干燥月降雨量 Precipitation of driest month
BIO15 各季节降雨量 Precipitation seasonality (coefficient of variation)
BIO16 最湿润季节降雨量 Precipitation of wettest quarter
BIO17 最干燥季节降雨量 Precipitation of driest quarter
BIO18 最暖季节平均温度 Mean temperature of warmest quarter
BIO19 最冷季节平均温度 Mean temperature of coldest quarter
Tmean1–12 1–12月平均温度 Average monthly mean temperature
Tmin1–12 1–12月最小温度 Average monthly minimum temperature
Tmax1–12 1–12月最大温度 Average monthly maximum temperature
Prec1–12 1–12月平均降雨量 Average monthly precipitation
Alt 高程 Altitude (elevation above sea level)
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