Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 677-687.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11088

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Comparison of compositions and functional guilds of bird communities across an edge-interior gradient in secondary forest at Houmiling, Hainan Island, China

Jianyun Gao1, 2, Zhaolu Wu1, Qiang Zhang2, Dongdong Su1, 2, Rendong Zhao3, Fasheng Zou2, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    2 Guangdong Entomological Institute/South China Institute of Endangered Animals, Guangzhou 510260
    3 Hainan Houmiling Nature Reserve, Dongfang, Hainan 572600
  • Received:2013-04-09 Accepted:2013-05-30 Online:2013-12-02
  • Zou Fasheng E-mail:zoufs@gdei.gd.cn

To understand edge effects on bird communities in a secondary-growth tropical rainforest, we examined how forest bird communities and different guilds change from the edge to the interior of a secondary forest at Houmiling Nature Reserve, Hainan. The study was conducted between August 2010 and September 2012, and used point counts and mist netting to survey birds at three sampling transects from the forest edge: 0-100 m (edge transect), 101-300 m (intermediate transect) and 301-500 m (interior transect). A total of 93 species were recorded. There were significant differences among the three sampling transects for mean species richness and mean number of individuals per point. Multiple comparisons revealed that species richness and individual abundance was highest in the intermediate transect and lowest in the edge transect. Species composition differed significantly from the edge to the interior transect. Intermediate and interior transects supported more forest-dependent species and forest generalists whose guilds were composed of frugivores, nectarivores and insectivores, which were sensitive to conditions at the forest edge. The edge transect harboured more open-habitat users, as well as a great number of granivores, ground insectivores and omnivores. In conclusion, forest edges have negative effects on bird diversity on Hainan Island, which should be borne in mind when developing strategies for forest bird conservation and habitat management.

Key words: tropical evergreen monsoon forest, secondary forest, edge effects, bird communities, bird compositions and functional guilds, Houmiling on Hainan Island

Fig. 1

Bird survey location at the Houmiling Nature Reserve, Hainan Island."

Fig. 2

Illustration of three sampling transects from forest edge for bird survey"

Fig. 3

Sample-based rarefaction curves for point count (a) and mist net (b) data for the different distance gradients from the forest edge"

Fig. 4

The mean number (mean ± SE) of species and individuals per point among the three sampling transects (left side of the dotted line), and differences in the mean capture rate (mean ± SE) of birds per net between the two sampling transects (right side of the dotted line). Different letters above bars indicate significant differences at the 0.05 level."

Fig. 5

PCA ordination plot of sampling points and species among the three sampling transects in a two dimensional ordinal space (See Appendix I for species codes)"

Fig. 6

The mean bird number (mean ± SE) per point grouped by forest-dependent category (left side of the dotted line) and habitat-use guild (right side of the dotted line) for the three sa- mpling transects at Houmiling. FD, Forest-dependent species; FG, Forest generalists; NF, Non-forest species; UB, Understory birds; OHU, Open-habitat users; VPG, Vertical-profile gene- ralists; GU, Ground users; SU, Shrub users. Different letters above bars indicate significant differences at the 0.05 level."

Fig. 7

The mean bird number per point (mean ± SE) grouped by foraging and dietary guild for the three sampling transects at Houmiling. UI, Understory insectivores; TI, Tree insectivores; N, Nectarivores; F, Frugivores; GI, Ground insectivores; O, Omnivores; G, Granivores. Different letters above bars indicate significant differences at the 0.05 level."

Appendix I

The bird checklist of the three sampling transects at the Houmiling Nature Reserve, August 2010 to September 2012. For each species, the point count numbers represent the mean number (mean ± SE) of individuals counted at each sampling point and the capture numbers represent the number of individuals caught per 100 net hours. Scientific and common names follow Zheng (2011)."

编号
Codes
种名和学名
Common and scientific name
森林依赖性类群
ForDep 1
生境利用
集团
HabGui 2
觅食食性
集团
FeeGuil 3
样点记录 Point counts 网捕 Mist nets
边缘带
Edge band
n = 40
中间带
Intermediate band
n = 40
内部带
Interior band
n = 40
中间带
Intermediate band
n = 10
内部带
Interior band
n = 6
S1 苍鹭 Ardea cinerea NF OHU C 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0 0 0
S2 大白鹭 A. alba NF OHU C 0.30 ± 0.21 0 0 0 0
S3 白鹭 Egretta garzetta NF OHU C 0.15 ± 0.11 0 0 0 0
S4 牛背鹭 Bubulcus ibis NF OHU GI 0.15 ± 0.15 0 0 0 0
S5 海南山鹧鸪 Arborophila ardens FD GU O 0 0.08 ± 0.06 0.20 ± 0.12 0 0
S6 原鸡 Gallus gallus FD GU O 0.20 ± 0.15 0.20 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.08 0 0
S7 普通燕鸻 Glareola maldivarum NF OHU GI 0.15 ± 0.13 0 0 0 0
S8 白腰草鹬 Tringa ochropus NF OHU C 0.10 ± 0.10 0 0 0 0
S9 珠颈斑鸠 Streptopelia chinensis * NF OHU G 6.30 ± 1.35a 0.20 ± 0.07b 0.05 ± 0.05b 0 0
S10 绿翅金鸠 Chalcophaps indica FD VPG F 0 0 0.05 ± 0.03 0.074 0
S11 绿嘴地鹃 Phaenicophaeus tristis FG GU GI 0.35 ± 0.13 0.33 ± 0.12 0.20 ± 0.10 0.023 0
S12 褐翅鸦鹃 Centropus sinensis NF SU SI 0.08 ± 0.06 0 0 0 0
S13 小鸦鹃 C. bengalensis NF SU SI 0.05 ± 0.03 0 0 0 0
S14 红头咬鹃 Harpactes erythrocephalus FD VPG TI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0
S15 普通翠鸟 Alcedo atthis * NF OHU C 0.40 ± 0.13a 0b 0b 0 0
S16 白胸翡翠 Halcyon smyrnensis * NF OHU C 0.15 ± 0.07 0 0 0.023 0
S17 蓝须夜蜂虎 Nyctyornis athertoni FD VPG TI 0.35 ± 0.09 0.23 ± 0.08 0.35 ± 0.11 0 0
S18 三宝鸟 Eurystomus orientalis FG VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0 0
S19 戴胜 Upupa epops NF OHU GI 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0 0
S20 黑眉拟啄木鸟 Megalaima oorti * FD VPG F 0b 0b 0.60 ± 0.12a 0 0
S21 栗啄木鸟 Celeus brachyurus FD VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.05 0.25 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.03 0.023 0.028
S22 黄嘴栗啄木鸟 Blythipicus pyrrhotis FD VPG TI 0.08 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.07 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0
S23 银胸丝冠鸟 Serilophus lunatus FD VPG TI 0 0 0.18 ± 0.18 0 0
S24 白鹡鸰 Motacilla alba * NF OHU GI 1.13 ± 0.32a 0.13 ± 0.08b 0.05 ± 0.05b 0 0
S25 灰鹡鸰 M. cinerea NF OHU GI 0.55 ± 0.20a 0.15 ± 0.05b 0.05 ± 0.03b 0 0.033
S26 树鹨 Anthus hodgsoni NF OHU GI 0.30 ± 0.15 0.18 ± 0.15 0.13 ± 0.09 0.027 0
S27 灰山椒鸟 Pericrocotus divaricatus ** FG VPG TI 0.25 ± 0.25 0 0 0 0
S28 赤红山椒鸟 P. flammeus * FG VPG TI 1.40 ± 0.68b 3.30 ± 0.63a 2.55 ± 0.53ab 0 0
S29 灰喉山椒鸟 P. solaris FG VPG TI 0 0 0.10 ± 0.10 0 0
S30 白头鹎 Pycnonotus sinensis * NF OHU O 18.95 ± 2.85a 4.83 ± 1.08b 2.23 ± 0.42b 2.49 0.17
S31 白喉冠鹎 Alophoixus pallidus * FD VPG F 0.65 ± 0.28b 3.38 ± 0.59a 3.08 ± 0.61a 0.05 0.538
S32 栗背短脚鹎 Hemixos castanonotus * FD VPG F 0b 1.00 ± 0.37b 5.30 ± 1.02a 0.023 0.099
S33 黑短脚鹎 Hypsipetes leucocephalus FD VPG F 0 0.15 ± 0.15 0.50 ± 0.35 0 0
S34 橙腹叶鹎 Chloropsis hardwickii * FD VPG TI 0b 0.05 ± 0.05b 0.33 ± 0.12a 0 0
S35 红尾伯劳 Lanius cristatus NF OHU TI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0.027 0
S36 棕背伯劳 L. schach * NF OHU TI 1.40 ± 0.19a 0.08 ± 0.04b 0b 0.12 0
S37 黑卷尾 Dicrurus macrocercus FG VPG TI 0 0.10 ± 0.07 0 0 0
S38 灰卷尾 D. leucophaeus FG VPG TI 0.10 ± 0.10 0 0 0 0
S39 古铜色卷尾 D. aeneus FD VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.05 0.15 ± 0.08 0.25 ± 0.11 0 0
S40 大盘尾 D. paradiseus FD VPG TI 0.18 ± 0.09b 0.43 ± 0.14a 0.80 ± 0.23a 0.083 0.092
S41 八哥 Acridotheres cristatellus NF OHU GI 0.10 ± 0.07 0 0 0 0
S42 黄胸绿鹊 Cissa hypoleuca * FD VPG O 0b 0.43 ± 0.17a 0.10 ± 0.07ab 0.109 0
S43 灰树鹊 Dendrocitta formosae * FD VPG O 0.45 ± 0.19b 0.98 ± 0.22a 0.50 ± 0.14b 0.025 0
S44 红尾歌鸲 Luscinia sibilans FG GU GI 0 0 0 0.027 0.066
S45 红喉歌鸲 L. calliope FG GU GI 0 0 0 0.027 0
S46 蓝歌鸲 L. cyane FG GU GI 0 0 0 0 0.031
S47 红胁蓝尾鸲 Tarsiger cyanurus FG GU GI 0 0 0 0 0.033
S48 鹊鸲 Copsychus saularis * NF OHU GI 0.78 ± 0.17a 0.15 ± 0.08b 0b 0.023 0
S49 白腰鹊鸲 C. malabaricus FD GU GI 0.90 ± 0.20ab 1.33 ± 0.18a 0.60 ± 0.16b 1.119 0.639
S50 红尾水鸲 Rhyacornis fuliginosus NF GU GI 0 0 0 0.027 0
S51 黑喉石鵖 Saxicola torquata NF SU SI 0.10 ± 0.07 0 0 0 0
S52 蓝矶鸫 Monticola solitarius NF GU GI 0.05 ± 0.03 0 0 0 0
S53 橙头地鸫 Zoothera citrina FD GU GI 0 0.20 ± 0.10 0.03 ± 0.03 0.12 0.544
S54 乌灰鸫 Turdus cardis FG GU GI 0 0 0 0.053 0
S55 乌鸫 T. merula NF GU GI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0.058 0
S56 北灰鹟 Muscicapa dauurica * FG VPG TI 0.20 ± 0.10 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0 0
S57 白眉姬鹟 Ficedula zanthopygia FG SU SI 0 0 0 0.049 0
S58 鸲姬鹟 F. mugimaki FG VPG TI 0.10 ± 0.05 0.23 ± 0.12 0 0 0.033
S59 红喉姬鹟 F. albicilla FG SU SI 0 0 0 0 0.033
S60 棕胸蓝姬鹟 F. hyperythra FD SU SI 0 0 0 0.023 0.113
S61 海南蓝仙鹟 Cyornis hainanus * FD UB UI 0.30 ± 0.08b 1.15 ± 0.19a 0.68 ± 0.16b 0.428 0.193
S62 白喉扇尾鹟 Rhipidura albicollis * FD UB UI 0.40 ± 0.15b 2.20 ± 0.29a 1.90 ± 0.40a 0.314 0.727
S63 黑枕王鹟 Hypothymis azurea * FD UB UI 0.03 ± 0.03b 0.43 ± 0.13ab 0.63 ± 0.23a 0.244 0
S64 寿带 Terpsiphone paradisi FD UB UI 0 0 0 0.027 0
S65 小黑领噪鹛 Garrulax monileger FD UB UI 3.40 ± 1.10 5.48 ± 1.35 4.95 ± 1.40 0.806 0.175
S66 黑领噪鹛 G. pectoralis FD UB UI 3.45 ± 1.12 5.58 ± 1.33 4.70 ± 1.45 0.053 0.094
S67 褐胸噪鹛 G. maesi * FD UB UI 0.50 ± 0.23b 4.20 ± 0.81a 4.08 ± 0.77a 0 0.087
S68 黑喉噪鹛 G. chinensis FD UB UI 2.03 ± 0.50 2.63 ± 0.56 2.23 ± 0.52 0.209 0.028
S69 长嘴钩嘴鹛 Pomatorhinus hypoleucos * FD UB UI 0b 0.95 ± 0.30a 1.05 ± 0.25a 0 0.087
S70 棕颈钩嘴鹛 P. ruficollis * FD UB UI 0.23 ± 0.15b 3.08 ± 0.64a 2.13 ± 0.58a 0.027 0.09
S71 红头穗鹛 Stachyris ruficeps * FD UB TI 0.35 ± 0.21b 2.78 ± 0.56a 2.98 ± 0.55a 0.023 0.09
S72 斑颈穗鹛 S. striolata FD UB UI 0 0.05 ± 0.05 0.20 ± 0.10 0 0.066
S73 栗额鵙鹛 Pteruthius aenobarbus FD VPG TI 0 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0
S74 褐顶雀鹛 Alcippe brunnea * FD UB UI 0b 0.63 ± 0.25a 0.98 ± 0.29a 0 0.198
S75 灰眶雀鹛 A. morrisonia * FD UB UI 3.85 ± 1.37b 19.58 ± 2.93a 13.33 ± 2.79a 1.32 1.672
S76 白腹凤鹛 Erpornis zantholeuca * FD VPG TI 1.00 ± 0.47b 6.20 ± 0.93a 5.90 ± 1.14a 0.023 0.105
S77 灰头鸦雀 Paradoxornis gularis FG VPG TI 0 0.45 ± 0.45 0.50 ± 0.37 0 0
S78 黄腹山鹪莺 Prinia flaviventris * NF SU SI 0.63 ± 0.15a 0.03 ± 0.03b 0b 0 0
S79 鳞头树莺 Urosphena squameiceps FG UB TI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0.08 0.066
S80 褐柳莺 Phylloscopus fuscatus * FG SU TI 0.10 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.06 0 0 0
S81 黄眉柳莺 P. inornatus FG VPG TI 0.35 ± 0.10 0.53 ± 0.14 0.50 ± 0.11 0.085 0.066
S82 极北柳莺 P. borealis * FG VPG TI 0a 0.38 ± 0.12b 0.40 ± 0.17ab 0.051 0
S83 双斑绿柳莺 P. plumbeitarsus FG VPG TI 0 0.13 ± 0.13 0.03 ± 0.03 0.08 0
S84 淡脚柳莺 P. tenellipes FG VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.06 0.18 ± 0.10 0.078 0
S85 红胁绣眼鸟 Zosterops erythropleurus FG VPG TI 0 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0
S86 暗绿绣眼鸟 Z. japonicus * FG VPG TI 3.38 ± 0.86b 5.85 ± 1.00a 3.53 ± 0.75ab 0.08 0
S87 大山雀 Parus major * FG VPG TI 1.08 ± 0.30a 0.58 ± 0.17a 0b 0 0
S88 纯色啄花鸟 Dicaeum concolor FG VPG N 0 0.45 ± 0.31 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0
S89 朱背啄花鸟 D. cruentatum FG VPG N 0.75 ± 0.17ab 1.20 ± 0.36a 0.48 ± 0.12b 0.078 0.033
S90 黄腹花蜜鸟 Cinnyris jugularis FG VPG N 1.73 ± 0.39 2.73 ± 0.44 2.65 ± 0.45 0.05 0.028
S91 叉尾太阳鸟 Aethopyga christinae * FG VPG N 0.03 ± 0.03b 0.65 ± 0.19a 1.03 ± 0.24a 0 0
S92 白腰文鸟 Lonchura striata * NF OHU G 7.00 ± 1.54a 0b 0b 0 0
S93 斑文鸟 L. punctulata * NF OHU G 2.30 ± 0.89a 0b 0b 0 0
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