Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 645-650.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017237

• Forum • Previous Article     Next Article

Protection of Chinese traditional knowledge in the backdrop of the Nagoya Protocol: A case study on acid tea of the De’ang Minority

Weilin Fu1, Mei Dong2, Wenhua Yang3, Xingyuan Yang4, Yujue Wang4, Gong Cheng4, *()   

  1. 1 College of Intellectual Property Law, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872
    2 Editorial Office of the Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201
    3 Administration of Cultural Heritage of Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Mangshi, Yunnan 678400
    4 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2017-09-02 Accepted:2017-12-27 Online:2018-09-11
  • Cheng Gong
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

China entered the Nagoya Protocol on September 6, 2016, signaling its establishment of the regime regarding protection of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as well as the Access and Benefit Sharing system (ABS) at both the national and international levels. It is stated that the purpose of defensive protection is to prevent bio-piracy while that of constructive protection is to facilitate benefit sharing. Based on years of field research, we reveal in this study that a user of De’ang acid tea, which is associated with local traditional knowledge, has applied for its patent without the consent of the original holder of its traditional knowledge, thereby constituting an act of bio-piracy. To achieve the purpose of defensive protection, we suggest that domestic patent laws be amended to make it mandatory (for any applicant) to disclose the origin of the traditional knowledge concerned to prevent bio-piracy. To achieve the purpose of constructive protection, we propose that, in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol, a sui generis system should be established through legislation to creatively develop a workable benefit sharing system, which involves identification of various traditional knowledge holding subjects, follows the principles of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Mutually Agreed Terms (MAT), and adopts the measure of compensation liabilities or Creative Commons License (CC) with the view to fulfill two major objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, namely conservation and sustainable use.

Key words: Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit sharing (ABS), traditional knowledge associated with acid tea, bio-piracy, disclosure of origin (DOO)

[1] Cheng G, Wang C, Xue DY (2012) Attitude to the traditional knowledge of international governmental organizations and suggested strategies of China. Biodiversity Science, 20, 505-511. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[成功, 王程, 薛达元 (2012) 国际政府间组织对传统知识议题的态度以及中国的对策建议. 生物多样性, 20, 505-511.]
[2] Damodaran A (2008) Traditional knowledge, intellectual property rights and biodiversity conservation: Critical issues and key challenges. Journal of Intellectual Property, 13, 509-513.
[3] Fu R (2006) Creative common license. Library, (4), 46-48. (in Chinese)
[傅蓉 (2006) 知识共享许可协议. 图书馆, (4), 46-48.]
[4] Fu WL, Cheng G (2017) On dealing with bio-piracy under the system of patent law—based on De’ang acid tea traditional knowledge. China Invention and Patent, 14(2), 12-16. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[傅玮琳, 成功 (2017) 专利法框架下应对“生物剽窃”之制度探索——以德昂族酸茶为例. 中国发明与专利, 14(2), 12-16.]
[5] Jiang WJ, Yang D (2016) The Symposium on Intellectual Property Focus, Difficulties and Hot Issues in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period held in Beijing. Intellectual Property, (4), 3-17. (in Chinese)
[蒋文杰, 杨丹 (2016) “十三五”时期知识产权焦点、难点和热点问题学术研讨会在京召开. 知识产权, (4), 3-17.]
[6] Li CX (2008) De’ang’s unique ethnic acid tea skills. Ethnic Today, (7), 43-44. (in Chinese)
[李淳信 (2008) 德昂族独特的酸茶技艺. 今日民族, (7), 43-44.]
[7] Liu CT (2003) Analysis of intellectual property rights. Chinese Social Sciences, (4), 109-121. (in Chinese)
[刘春田 (2003) 知识财产权解析. 中国社会科学, (4), 109-121.]
[8] Qin TB (2005) Selected Compilation of International and Foreign Laws on Genetic Resources. Law Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[秦天宝 (2005) 国际与外国遗传资源法选编. 法律出版社, 北京.]
[9] Wei GH, Li T (2015) On the protection principles of folk literature and art works. Intellectual, (3), 48-52. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[韦贵红, 李潭 (2015) 民间文学艺术作品的保护原则探析. 知识产权, (3), 48-52.]
[10] Wu T, Petriello MA (2011) Culture and biodiversity losses linked with response. Science, 331, 30-31.
[11] Xue DY (2007) Access and benefit sharing of genetic resources: Background, progress and challenges. Biodiversity Science, 15, 563-568. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[薛达元 (2007) 遗传资源获取与惠益分享: 背景、进展与挑战. 生物多样性, 15, 563-568.]
[12] Xue DY (2011) Analysis for the main elements and potential impacts of Nagoya Protocol. Biodiversity Science, 19, 113-119. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[薛达元 (2011)《名古屋议定书》的主要内容及其潜在影响. 生物多样性, 19, 113-119.]
[13] Xue DY (2014) On the national regime for access and benefit- sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in China: An enlightenment from coming into force of Nagoya Protocol. Biodiversity Science, 22, 547-548. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[薛达元 (2014) 建立遗传资源及相关传统知识获取与惠益分享国家制度:写在《名古屋议定书》生效之际. 生物多样性, 22, 547-548.]
[14] Xue DY, Cai L (2006) New hotspot of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Traditional knowledge protection. Environmental Protection, (12b), 72-74. (in Chinese)
[薛达元, 蔡蕾 (2006) 《生物多样性公约》新热点: 传统知识保护. 环境保护, (12b), 72-74.]
[15] Xue DY, Guo L (2009) On concepts and protection of traditional knowledge. Biodiversity Science, 17, 135-142. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[薛达元, 郭泺 (2009) 论传统知识的概念与保护生物多样性, 17, 135-142.]
[16] Xue DY, Lin YM (2006) Property right theory on bio-genetic resources and benefit sharing system. In: Patent Law Research (ed. State Intellectual Property Office of P. R. China , pp. 31-57. Intellectual Property Right Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[薛达元, 林燕梅 (2006) 生物遗传资源产权理论与惠益分享制度. 见: 国家知识产权局编《专利法研究》, 31-57页. 知识产权出版社, 北京.]
[17] Xue DY, Wu JY, Zhao FW (2012) Actions, progress and prospects in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity during the past 20 years in China. Biodiversity Science, 20, 623-632. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[薛达元, 武建勇, 赵富伟 (2012) 中国履行《生物多样性公约》二十年: 行动、进展与展望. 生物多样性, 20, 623-632.]
[18] Zhang Y, Xue XT (2009) Quality analysis of acid tea. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology, (12), 133-136. (in Chinese)
[张杨, 薛晓霆 (2009) 酸茶品质分析与研究. 现代农业科技, (12), 133-136.]
[19] Zhao FW, Xue DY, Wu JY (2015) Hot spots and proposed actions of negotiations of the Nagoya Protocol after it functions. Biodiversity Science, 23, 536-542. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵富伟, 薛达元, 武建勇 (2015)《名古屋议定书》生效后的谈判焦点与对策. 生物多样性, 23, 536-542.]
[1] Baoping Li,Dayuan Xue. (2019) Application of digital sequence information in biodiversity research and its potential impact on benefit sharing . Biodiv Sci, 27(12): 1379-1385.
[2] Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu, Senlu Yin, Yu Tian, Junsheng Li. (2017) Mechanisms of benefit-sharing of medicinal plants found in China and neighboring countries . Biodiv Sci, 25(8): 907-913.
[3] Jianyong Wu, Dayuan Xue. (2017) Important issues concerning the national legislation of access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing . Biodiv Sci, 25(11): 1156-1160.
[4] Jing Xu,Miaozhuang Zheng,Yan Liu,Wenjing Liu,Senlu Yin,Junsheng Li. (2016) Establishment of a mechanism on sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction . Biodiv Sci, 24(1): 108-.
[5] Fuwei Zhao,Dayuan Xue,Jianyong Wu. (2015) Hot spots and proposed actions of negotiations of the Nagoya Protocol after it functions . Biodiv Sci, 23(4): 536-542.
[6] Chunxin Zang,Lei Cai,Xiao Guan,Jing Xu,Junsheng Li. (2014) Review the progress of negotiations of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing . Biodiv Sci, 22(5): 677-681.
[7] Jianyong Wu,Dayuan Xue,Fuwei Zhao,Yanjie Wang. (2013) Impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on access to plant genetic resources and benefit sharing in China . Biodiv Sci, 21(6): 758-764.
[8] Jing Xu,Lei Cai,Aihua Wang,Dayuan Xue,Qingwen Yang,Junsheng Li,Senlu Yin. (2013) The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations . Biodiv Sci, 21(1): 127-131.
[9] Jing Xu, Junsheng Li, Dayuan Xue. (2012) Negotiation progress of the Nagoya Protocol on the access of genetic resources and benefit-sharing and countermeasures . Biodiv Sci, 20(6): 779-783.
[10] Gong Cheng, Cheng Wang, Dayuan Xue. (2012) Attitude to the traditional knowledge of international governmental organizations and suggested strategies of China . Biodiv Sci, 20(4): 505-511.
[11] Dayuan Xue. (2011) Analysis for the main elements and potential impacts of Nagoya Protocol . Biodiv Sci, 19(1): 113-119.
Full text